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  • 首頁>古建百科>古建文化>詳情
    名片盒:方寸之上滿載中國趣味嶺南工藝
    2019-03-14 15:41:46 來源:中國新聞網  作者:卜松竹  責任編輯:沈潔

      名片這種小東西,隨著手機和網絡技術的進步,漸漸地有點兒要成為歷史文物的意思。你在旅游時淘的那些各式各樣的漂亮名片夾,是不是也都不知丟到哪個角落里去了呢?別急,不妨挑些漂亮的先收好,沒準哪一天,它們就和那些一兩百年前的“老前輩們”一樣,進了博物館或者其他收藏機構。

      真的,在廣州各家博物館的展品柜和儲藏室中,能看到不少漂亮的名片夾,有銀的,有檀香木的,有象牙的。作為一種社交工具,人們在小小的名片盒上可是花了不少心思呢。

      最早外銷名片盒

      出自西關銀匠之手

      名片是向別人介紹自己姓名、職業、身份等信息的小卡片,在東西方的歷史都很悠久。根據學者們的梳理,中國古代名片的發展史大致是這樣:先秦至西漢時期稱為“謁”,在東漢以后,謁的使用逐漸減少,“刺”的使用逐漸增多(“謁”主要是請求接見,“刺”多是通報姓名,二者質地均為竹、木);東漢,刺逐漸變為紙制;唐代,刺的名稱逐漸變更為名刺、名帖和名紙等;元以后,名刺得到進一步演變,種類繁多;明清兩朝流行的名帖主要有請帖、揭帖、說帖、副啟、拜帖等;19世紀初,隨著西人東來,西方近代印刷技術和一些生活、社交習慣傳入中國,西式名片慢慢在中國發展,中國進入中式名刺和西式名片并行時期;辛亥革命后,西式名片得到流行和普及。但目前在個別地區,一些如訂婚等莊重的場合,重視傳統的老輩人還是會依照嚴格規范手寫名帖。不過今天更多人,特別是年輕人,已經習慣采用電子名片的形式,通過移動端和云端,來保存和轉移社交信息。很多人出門漸漸不帶名片了。

      18世紀末至19世紀,隨著社交的需要,名片在歐美社會的社交圈內廣泛使用。當時也正好是東西方交往的一個關鍵時期。從名片使用的內容到形式,雙方都有互相影響的地方,這也就促成了名片盒這種小而重要的物件的工藝發展和貿易繁榮。在當時“中國風”的熏染下,西方市場不僅對茶葉、絲綢、陶瓷等大宗商品感興趣,也對折扇、寫真畫、名片盒等小東西著迷。它們成為彰顯紳士淑女時尚品位和審美意趣的外部象征,成了時刻不離身的標準配飾。

      據東莞鴉片戰爭博物館學者許鵬的說法,由于銀器在歐洲使用廣泛,所以銀質名片盒最早開始出現。廣東省博物館在其廣東外銷品大展中也有這樣的說法:“銀是最早被采用制作名片盒的材質,名片盒底部隱蔽處常常刻有匠名、店號、成色等印記。”

      歐洲人Osmond Tiffany 在1844年的日記中, 曾提及他參觀當時靖遠街一間銀器店的情況:“店鋪的銀匠能制造任何物品……有著精致華麗的花紋的盒子, 或是名片盒, 就是這些銀匠的得意之作。”

      小小名片盒

      薈萃廣州高超繁雜工藝

      精美名片盒的出現,實際和18世紀到19世紀歐洲崇尚浮華裝飾的風潮關系密切。當時的紳士淑女們,但凡在公眾場所展示的所有物品,在條件允許的情況下,都加以精心的裝潢和設計。即以名片來說,與中國傳統格式嚴格、統一的名帖不同,西式名片盒在外觀上更加多樣繁復。它們設計精美,紙質考究,內容既有手寫,又有版印,有的還以圖案裝飾。自然地,名片盒需要與之相配合。于是,大量外形纖巧,材質多樣,精致優雅,集鑄造、雕刻、鑲嵌、繪畫等藝術于一身的名片盒,出現了。它們與中國傳統習慣采用的織繡“名片夾”也有很大的不同。

      在廣東民間工藝博物館、廣東省博物館等地收藏的那一時期名片盒代表作中,我們可以看到貝雕、漆作、檀香木等各種今天看來匪夷所思的材料制作的名片盒,而且做工極為精細。比如一件曾經在拍賣市場上拍出數萬元高價的老名片盒,采用銀花絲掐絲編制工藝——先以粗銀絲編成框架,后以極細銀花絲編織成各種造型焊接于框架之上;盒體主紋飾以極細銀絲編織的“井”型花紋為底,上下各飾一條鏤空蟠龍,間飾以靈動的云紋。高度的工藝性和鮮明的時代特征,讓老名片盒日漸成為收藏市場的新寵。

      清代,名片盒的出口主要是在廣東地區,和其他外銷品在此聚集的原因大同小異,得益于獨特而專享性的外貿環境;另一方面也和廣東工匠高超的技術有關。按許鵬的研究,廣東外銷名片盒上使用了大量典型的本土工藝技藝,主要包括:蕾絲工藝——我國古代傳統工藝之一,為金屬工藝中最精巧者,是將金或銀加工成絲,然后將其編成各種網狀組織,再經盤曲、掐花、填絲、堆壘等手法制作的細致工藝;錘揲鏨刻工藝——金銀細工工藝的基本技法之一,以錘敲打金、銀塊,使之延伸展開呈片狀,再按要求打造成各種器型和紋飾,錘揲成型后,再用鏨刻技術加工細部;雕刻工藝——主要有牙雕、木雕、貝雕等,題材有山水人物、花鳥魚蟲、戲曲故事等圖案,給名片盒賦予了許多“故事性”。

      材質多樣

      見證中西外貿交流

      在現存的清代外銷名片盒中,檀香木質地的占相當比例。檀香木屬珍貴木種之一, 由于檀香木生長緩慢, 據說可供使用的檀香木少說也要有一二百年的樹齡。在實用中,檀香木名片盒除了雕工精湛,還因為拔開盒蓋,即可聞到撲鼻的檀木香味。一些人認為,它不僅可以起到香囊的作用,還可使名片濡染上檀香木特有的清馨芳香,平添清虛淡泊、心神爽悅之感,以此展示自己不群的品位。這其實也是一種個人形象的傳播營銷。

      明清兩代廣州牙雕達到鼎盛時期。清代牙雕制品有小玩意兒、擺設品、實用品、祭祀品等大類, 鏤空編織、鑲嵌等全面發展和應用,形成了鮮明的嶺南地方風格。而廣東的工匠,更是將這種材質用到了頂峰。乾隆五十八年,英國國王喬治三世特使馬戛爾尼一行參觀廣州牙雕后,在《旅行在中國》一書上寫道:“看來似乎最優秀、最完美無瑕的頂峰,就是象牙雕刻。”可見這種工藝在西方人心目中留下的深刻印象。順理成章地,象牙材質和工藝就被用在了名片盒上,而且成為高端產品。

      無論哪種材質的外銷名片盒,我們都能看到鮮明的中國風情,特別是嶺南特色。很多人物的裝束,一看就是廣東。山水、人物、樓臺、橋梁、樹木、花草……在歐洲的社交場上,指掌之間,翻動的是中國的趣味。

      當然,名片盒中也有許多來樣定制的作品。一些名仕貴族或者大商人還要求將自己的族徽、名字、標志符號等鐫刻在名片盒表面。從現存的名片盒來看,有很多名片盒上有紋章符號。

      清代小說《文明小史》第50回中,記載了當時人們使用西式名片的一個場景:“巡捕傳進一個洋式片子來,上面寫著蟲書鳥篆。”許鵬指出:“中國的外銷名片盒不但具有中國傳統工藝,又被賦予了中西外貿交流的神圣使命。”它們是中國傳統工藝的有效載體,反映了清代手工業的制造水平。小而精,小而美,說的就是這樣的東西吧。

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