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  • 首頁>古建百科>古建文化>詳情
    紫禁城里說“透風”:沒有不透風的墻
    2019-02-27 10:14:02 來源:央廣網  作者:佚名  責任編輯:沈潔

      紫禁城古建筑是世界上現存規模最大、保存最完整的木結構建筑群。作為紫禁城古建筑的核心骨架,木材材料具有良好的抗彎、抗壓和韌性,但也存在怕潮濕、易腐朽等材性缺陷。因此,使紫禁城古建筑的木構件始終處于一個干燥通風的環境,對于古建筑本身的延年益壽而言,是極其重要的。

    紫禁城里說“透風”:沒有不透風的墻

      然而,從建筑工序的角度講,通常是先安裝木柱柱網和梁架,再砌墻。古建筑的墻體很厚,在與木柱相交的位置附近,砌墻時往往會把柱子包起來。封閉在墻體里的柱子,如果不經常通風干燥的話,很容易產生糟朽。為解決這一問題,聰明的我國古代工匠利用古建磚料巧妙地制作了一種“空氣循環器”——透風。

      春節前夕,故宮在養心殿研究性保護修繕項目中意外地發現了兩份保存完好的乾隆年間的春節曲目戲折,吸引了不少人眼球。而這兩份戲折,就是在西配殿的金柱磚雕透風內靜靜躺了200多年。

      對于現代建筑而言,空氣循環器是一種現代科技設備,其主要功能在于使建筑室內外的空氣不斷流通,達到空氣交換的目的。顧名思義,為解決墻體內木柱通風問題而誕生的透風,其作用正相當于一種原始的空氣循環器。

      所謂透風,其實就是一塊帶有鏤空雕刻的磚。通常工匠會在木柱與墻體相交的位置,不讓木柱直接接觸墻體,而是與墻體之間存在5厘米左右的空隙,同時在柱底位置對應的墻體位置留一個磚洞口,尺寸約為15厘米寬,20厘米高。為美觀起見,工匠們還采用刻有紋飾的鏤空磚雕來砌筑這個洞口,這個帶有鏤空圖紋的磚就被稱為透風。透風是依靠墻體外風力造成的風壓和墻體內外空氣溫度差造成的熱壓等自然力,促使空氣流動,使得建筑室內外可以進行空氣交換的一種方式。這一通風方式在保證建筑功能情況下,讓建筑通過自然通風來調節墻體附近木柱的濕度環境,從而保證了木柱本身的干燥狀態。

      在設置透風的墻體上,一般會在底部和頂部各設置一個,并保持兩個透風在同一豎直線上,其主要目的是為了形成空氣對流和循環。若僅設置一個透風,相當于空氣單向流動,除濕效果必然不佳。同時設置兩個透風,方便空氣從底部透風進入,沿著柱身往上流動,爾后從柱頂位置的透風排出,可使墻體內的柱子在上下方向都能空氣流通。這樣,柱子與墻體之間潮濕的空氣就被排出去了,柱子也就能始終保持干燥狀態。

      同時,紫禁城古建筑外墻上的透風位置實際是與木柱位置對應的,如果墻體的某個位置安裝了透風,那么墻體立面肯定就有木柱,這就解釋了為什么紫禁城古建筑的外墻,每隔一定距離就會有一對透風。

      紫禁城的工匠在長期的古建施工中,積累了豐富的透風制作經驗。他們不拘泥于僅僅在實體磚上開洞來滿足墻體內木柱通風需求,而是將磚雕做成了豐富多彩的紋飾,比如雕成獅子形象的透風。獅子是我國傳統文化中最為常見的神獸,它是智慧和力量的化身,代表英勇、王權和威嚴,象征地位、尊嚴和吉祥。透風的使用,對古建筑整體而言,起到了錦上添花的作用,并兼有文化性和藝術性,體現著我國古代工匠智慧與藝術的結合。(作者系故宮博物院研究館員)

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