• <blockquote id="a6osq"></blockquote>
    <samp id="a6osq"></samp>
  • <xmp id="a6osq">
  • <label id="a6osq"><sup id="a6osq"></sup></label>
  • <samp id="a6osq"></samp>
  • 首頁>古建百科>古建文化>詳情
    紫禁城里說“透風”:沒有不透風的墻
    2019-02-27 10:14:02 來源:央廣網  作者:佚名  責任編輯:沈潔

      紫禁城古建筑是世界上現存規模最大、保存最完整的木結構建筑群。作為紫禁城古建筑的核心骨架,木材材料具有良好的抗彎、抗壓和韌性,但也存在怕潮濕、易腐朽等材性缺陷。因此,使紫禁城古建筑的木構件始終處于一個干燥通風的環境,對于古建筑本身的延年益壽而言,是極其重要的。

    紫禁城里說“透風”:沒有不透風的墻

      然而,從建筑工序的角度講,通常是先安裝木柱柱網和梁架,再砌墻。古建筑的墻體很厚,在與木柱相交的位置附近,砌墻時往往會把柱子包起來。封閉在墻體里的柱子,如果不經常通風干燥的話,很容易產生糟朽。為解決這一問題,聰明的我國古代工匠利用古建磚料巧妙地制作了一種“空氣循環器”——透風。

      春節前夕,故宮在養心殿研究性保護修繕項目中意外地發現了兩份保存完好的乾隆年間的春節曲目戲折,吸引了不少人眼球。而這兩份戲折,就是在西配殿的金柱磚雕透風內靜靜躺了200多年。

      對于現代建筑而言,空氣循環器是一種現代科技設備,其主要功能在于使建筑室內外的空氣不斷流通,達到空氣交換的目的。顧名思義,為解決墻體內木柱通風問題而誕生的透風,其作用正相當于一種原始的空氣循環器。

      所謂透風,其實就是一塊帶有鏤空雕刻的磚。通常工匠會在木柱與墻體相交的位置,不讓木柱直接接觸墻體,而是與墻體之間存在5厘米左右的空隙,同時在柱底位置對應的墻體位置留一個磚洞口,尺寸約為15厘米寬,20厘米高。為美觀起見,工匠們還采用刻有紋飾的鏤空磚雕來砌筑這個洞口,這個帶有鏤空圖紋的磚就被稱為透風。透風是依靠墻體外風力造成的風壓和墻體內外空氣溫度差造成的熱壓等自然力,促使空氣流動,使得建筑室內外可以進行空氣交換的一種方式。這一通風方式在保證建筑功能情況下,讓建筑通過自然通風來調節墻體附近木柱的濕度環境,從而保證了木柱本身的干燥狀態。

      在設置透風的墻體上,一般會在底部和頂部各設置一個,并保持兩個透風在同一豎直線上,其主要目的是為了形成空氣對流和循環。若僅設置一個透風,相當于空氣單向流動,除濕效果必然不佳。同時設置兩個透風,方便空氣從底部透風進入,沿著柱身往上流動,爾后從柱頂位置的透風排出,可使墻體內的柱子在上下方向都能空氣流通。這樣,柱子與墻體之間潮濕的空氣就被排出去了,柱子也就能始終保持干燥狀態。

      同時,紫禁城古建筑外墻上的透風位置實際是與木柱位置對應的,如果墻體的某個位置安裝了透風,那么墻體立面肯定就有木柱,這就解釋了為什么紫禁城古建筑的外墻,每隔一定距離就會有一對透風。

      紫禁城的工匠在長期的古建施工中,積累了豐富的透風制作經驗。他們不拘泥于僅僅在實體磚上開洞來滿足墻體內木柱通風需求,而是將磚雕做成了豐富多彩的紋飾,比如雕成獅子形象的透風。獅子是我國傳統文化中最為常見的神獸,它是智慧和力量的化身,代表英勇、王權和威嚴,象征地位、尊嚴和吉祥。透風的使用,對古建筑整體而言,起到了錦上添花的作用,并兼有文化性和藝術性,體現著我國古代工匠智慧與藝術的結合。(作者系故宮博物院研究館員)

    古建風采
    古建檔案
    分支機構 更多
    熱門點擊
    ? 蚂蚁彩票 www.wugou135.com | yl66yl00.com | www.11008016.com | www.99jtj.com | 3467q.com | www.684000.com | www.640118.com | 77332007.com | www.689797.com | 2229.cc | www.88807h.com | www.5522y.cc | 9971002.com | www.3421b.com | 8159c.cc | www.wenetian.cc | 36088.com | www.hg1528.com | www.15355g.com | 9994cc16.com | www.99094r.com | 51200gg.com | www.99418.com | www.289379.com | www.767166.com | www.87668n.com | hg10.com | www.126629.com | 8569811a.com | www.89677r.com | d2554.com | www.444167.com | www.616383.com | 131xx.net | www.81678z.com | 24670011.com | www.5657598.com | 1213lll.com | www.99113z.com | 80031122.com | www.97060e.com | 38244k.com | www.g7817.vip | 73999r.com | www.15515533.com | www.197880.com | www.pu15.com | www.580896.com | www.hg7748.com | www.998484.com | 2997702.com | www.71399p.com | pjxianggang.com | www.62778855.com | v3405.com | www.56011j.com | ry7722.com | www.44118i.com | 73055r.com | www.91779o.com | 4182q.com | www.58908b.com | ww080.us | www.v1058.com | 93922z.com | www.js56773.com | 9068ss.com | www.r63568.com | 22098t.com | 08159g.com | www.813016.com | 28288v.com | www.71399j.com | 13822.com | www.7777y.cc | www.183ks.com | www.809217.com | www.bet365605.com | www.303853.com | www.xpj1633.com | 2506h.com | www.56655e.com | dzyy076.com | www.4196t.com | 7599h.com | www.7239v.com | 3178ff.com | www.996099.com | www.4625q.com | www.117318.com | www.vns8970.com | 3685s.com | www.60333.com | 11tt8331.com | 6118b.com | www.68365.com | b75.com | www.fl62.com | www.xpj8t8.com | www.45598d.com | 32666f.com | www.60007l.com | vip201538.com | www.605733.com | www.29980044.net | 36408877.com | www.ya2019y.com | www.ab218.com | www.99677v.com | www.bmw111.com | 0198855.com | www.52303t.com | www.pj6633.com | www.52303v.com | www.138cpa.com | 2172223.com | www.91709.com | www.38200i.com | 33oo8331.com | www.4196m.com | 28288w.com | www.986282.com | www.jing6777.com | 8901i.com | www.36787b.com | www.66666vns.com | 67888b.cc | www.2566y4.com | 2400010.com | fhcp127.com | www.b35aa.com | 6xh.vip | www.684077.com | www.www-79489.com | 69096.com | www.26878c.com | www.2061368.com | 5478x.com | www.84499j.com | www.30309193.com | bwinvvv.com | www.29277l.com | www.fh8000.com | xpjgo7.com | www.h3658.com | www.8124i.com | 131pp.net | www.826016.com | www.vns8892.com | 18438b.com | www.567733.com | www.vnsr00888.com | 444000kkk.com | www.35918h.com | www.25288s.com | 30019b.com | www.80075.com | www.tyc55.com | blm877.com | www.764499.com | www.i456x.com | 6261yy.com | www.401280.com | www.bet63v.com | 1185456.com | 897dd.cc | www.5854q.cc | www.flp1681.com | hg0088.ro | www.108013.com | www.91779w.com | xxxx0123.com | 9895a.com | www.3668w.com | www.22211.am | www.zdj70.com | 2js.com | www.901172.com | www.50999p.com | 2019s.cc | 52688e.com | www.2632u.com | www.allcity888.com | feicai0437.com | 3016vvv.com | www.88065f.com | www.987559.com | jumboluck.com | 28824q.com | www.8d868.com | www.000435.com | 3685t.com | 1517726.com | www.2350r.com | www.61130.com | www.48373.com | 6396k.com | www.361706.com | www.lge.huya | www.17035.com | 7945.com | 5651b.com | www.240689.com | www.7240y.com | www.82508b.com | yhqinghai.vip | 407mm.com | www.cp369.net | www.535083.com | www.mh988.net | 8569811u.com | 45460006.com | www.128083.com | www.96386n.com | www.497875.com | www.047886.com | 66458u.com | 20176699.com | www.766602.com | www.27jsc.com | www.432kj.com | 5647l.com | 82509.com | www.60108v.com | www.66368.com | www.hjdc2008.com | www.4797.com | www.js87000.com | 7240c.com | 56988i.vip | www.969317.com | www.wns123a.com | www.hg8289.com | 518cp55.com | 97340055.com | lixingyoulun.com | www.501254.com | www.77803t.com | www.bet91487.com | www.01899.com | jbb27.win | www.808762.com | www.792050.com | www.yvnsr.com | xpj62904.com | s2894.com | www.812870.com | www.2221102.com | www.6789wh.com | www.40818f.com | 048967.com | dzc13.com | 4997g.com | www.273092.com | www.7793o.com | www.196606.com | www.cai32.com | www.yh795.com | www.hgc444.com | 4182m.com | 2137.com | hgw168v.com | vip.city78.cn | www.701671.com | www.33598m.com | www.amjs339.com | www.4694w.com | www.99498.com | www.0860d.com | www.8520o.com | 2458.com | sha0000.com | dzj112.com | 4022o.com | 99111zz.com | www.136503.com | www.810709.com | www.595hc.com | www.0270z.com | www.aa15.cc | www.7036bb.com | www.7415uu.com | www.3122d.com | www.hg8445.com | www.9679d.com | www.hg888.la | www.9996pp.com | www.a1a000.cc | o00351.com | 2443e.com | 68228u.com | 635288.com | hhvip86.com | 80567g.com | wx99.com | 58222m.com | 1317345.com | 4694b.com | bet99331.com | 5804v.com | 8898444.com | 1406766.com | 3242w.com | 3511.sbf822.com | 3202.com | 35dd.vip | 3178zz.com | hhvip65.com | dejinbet.com | 9121901.com | 4036oo.com | 3467v.am | yth67.com | 4005dh.com | 091717.com | 7003uu.com | 82365x.com | 11683311.com | zhcp29.com | yh888e.com | www.3983130.com | 54443g.com | www.033033t.com | www.85770g.com | www.z22365.com | www.4261144.com | www.hg6009.com | www.489789.com | www.281106.com | www.661559.com | www.bet91482.com | www.7191a.com | www.80030066.com | www.86267j.com | www.6832k.com | www.hx1164.com | www.599424.com | www.106395.com | 2373w.com | 93777.com | 0366.com | nyty08.com | 6176007.com | www.3653306.com | www.mmtx789.com | www.622msc.com | www.cn365e.com | www.c94600.com | www.73166f.com | www.ck09.com | www.022184.com | 1679n.com | 33432z.com | 22299ll.com | 80878d.com | www.22293737.com | www.i456x.com | www.0007795.com | www.rfdc05.com | www.938905.com | 3650580.com | 2355e.com | 38365m.com | feicai010.com | www.2888.so | www.w948w.com | www.828177.com | www.33997d.com | www.514918.com | tz1555.com | 9479d4.com | 44077i.com | www.8694u.com | www.365279c.com | www.xyh6002.com | www.29277r.com | www.375699.com | x8381.com | 4196n.com | www.pj25555.com | www.03499.com | www.64566b.com | www.78700l.com | www.371411.com | 5003ii.com | hga088.rs | www.28758e.com | www.984365.com | www.256095.com | www.c5823.com | 33zz8332.com | 3614.com | www.282203.com | www.hg173h.com | www.54400j.com | www.082710.com | 8569811g.com | xpj677i.com | www.fcd666.com | www.833bbb.com | www.989774.com | 37570e.com | 33318i.com | www.58777z.com | www.8hg6668.com | www.1368s.cc | 44tt8332.com | blr8033.com | www.hg7211m.com | www.hg194.com | www.630675.com | m82365.com | j83377.com | www.998855o.com | www.80767m.com | 26668i.com | 33389.cc | www.04762004.com | www.350c5.com | www.529106.com | wn99wn.com | www.d0686.com | www.99113f.com | www.3933n.cc | 6002f.com | 55nn8331.com | www.143291.com | www.6364a.com | 35856app.com | 63305f.com | www.58118f.com | www.5xcu.com | 5002i.com | www.vns66999.com | www.06387722.com | www.577837.com | 06385454.com | www.j2367.com | www.52062w.com | www.321537.com | q3405.com | www.a4116.com | www.29496a.com | 776072.com | 48283333.com | www.06820n.com | www.550214.com | 3534z.com | www.vnsr2018g.com | www.7714a.com | 3089b.com | j1504.com | www.469704.com | www.345576.com | 33382x.com | www.n2678.com | www.892558.com | www.0088hgbb.com | 65005d.com | 9819733.com | www.14k0048.com | www.339281.com | 08159g.com | www.cp0018.com | www.899342.com | so33333.cc | www.0285.com | www.138136a.com | 8159t.cc | www.225430.com | www.2373g.com | 597929.com | www.058600.com | www.37676.cc | s58955.com | www.700555.hk | www.cp500.in | 88993v.com | www.79500u.com | www.606684.com | 772.so | www.bd2019e.com | www.345897.com | 2767e.com | www.87708d.com | 98955d.com | www.4123nn.com | www.954321a.com | 2698a.com | www.22235b.com | www.585hc.com | 2685a.com | www.22666.com | www.097037.com | 44995002.com | www.6889772.com | 0245z.com | www.284444.me | www.sjgc3.com | 8003aa.com | www.s32939.com | 73055.cc | www.j22365.com | www.23636f.com | 71707l.com | www.7796877.com | 9645ss.com | www.d276.com | www.qucp7.com | n77304.com | www.33678oo.com | 99151w.com | www.56563b.com | www.708330.com | 56988x.com | www.959595.la | 77605x.com | www.jz298.com | 3122h.com | www.18933i.com | www.729133.com | 2820i.com | www.188666.com | 4255ii.com | www.huayi660.com | 9068q.com | www.973777.com | www.50064e.com | www.365815d.com | www.911070.com | 37570j.com | www.61655x.com | 33aa8332.com | www.42456622.com | 37111m.com | www.7225g.com | 2338jt.com | www.27363v.com | 5004e.com | www.111153.com | www.33588i.com | www.5364d.com | www.566897.com | www.sun008.cc | www.976616.com | bet3659905.com | www.5086m.com | mm2205.com | www.32123x.com | 44488e.com | www.53900f.com | www.91500999.com | 2127b.com | www.xg289.net | 50067a.com | www.hg3326.com | vip2127.com | www.1233789.com | swin8.com | www.61199.com | kkk556677.com | www.yh269831.com | JS1388v.com | www.4212h.com | 116144.com | www.bet63b.com | 1463r.com | www.33678pp.com | 5622w.com | www.8577g.cc | 8569811h.com | www.99677p.com | 500000573.com | www.669zf.com | www.68666y.com | www.679000.com | www.87680o.com | www.89894u.com | www.306408.com | ff555a.com | www.8887hj.com | 2172225.com | www.js28666.com | ggg7570.com | www.54591.com | www.8520f.com | www.589021.com | www.272424.com | 3119ccc.com | www.4694k.com | 2000c.cc | www.57798b.com | 5446aa.com | www.19019i.com | 547842.com | www.js18685.com | b2894.com | www.763226.com | www.7676761133.com | 09299333.com | www.jz6999.com | 333222.com | www.pj56d.com | 30019r.com | www.558424.com | www.pj5718.com | 2381sss.com | www.780780b.com | 8030c.com | www.799046.com | www.3775488.com | 6789blr.biz | www.8866gvb.com | 2267u.com | www.589544.com | www.902488.com | 5647p.com | www.6939d.com | 22661381.com | x7742.com | www.00772i.com | 08159c.com | www.998349.com | www.hengyfashion.com | 1434p.com | www.79670.com | www.89422.com | 518cp4.com | www.pj81619.com | 28483000.com | www.093388.com | www.ff55826.com | 33jj8331.com | www.633813.com | www.js6767r.com | b9961.com | www.8667q.com | www.hy229.com | 3156hhh.com | www.bj16.com | www.8694p.com | 8988g.com | www.ag.hg3005.tw | www.hg56777.com | 33382ww.com | www.0601o.com | www.www-77000.com | feicai0530.com | www.3a435.com | www.7025z.com | i5429.com | www.50732f.com | www.hg1557.com | 1408y.com | www.18kpl.com | www.5006c.com | 30688n.com | www.557894.com | www.80969t.com | jz7.com | 8569811t.com | www.7350.vip | www.4107f.com | 914910.com | www.08588z.com | www.00618l.com | byj10.com | www.6858666.com | www.6tgpd.com | 60957777.com | www.950920.com | www.cp67774.com | iiii19927.com | www.99638i.com | www.38775xx.com | www.yh8009.com | 44gg8332.com | www.18399.com | www.068340.com | www.2y926.com | 59599r.com | www.4737.com | www.hg88.us | xpj05000.com | www.343133.com | www.6687o.com | www.862365.com | 1145.com | www.907883.com | www.r32939.com | 1705x.com | 55984b.com | www.c189.vip | www.dzj0004.com | www.557894.com | www.730016.com | www.hg9689.com | 9479a3.com | www.510830.com | www.103575.com | www.r8867.com | 3957w.com | 55984v.com | www.69096.com | www.mark428.com | 237844.com | 82997.co | www.663738.com | www.758908.com | www.yh8402.com | yf788.net | 3807n.com | www.qilc7.com | www.2776.cc | www.09569s.com | 01885.tv | 11335156.com | www.66clf.com | www.694942.com | www.40686d.com | 2091.com | 0860x.com | www.qbwc6.com | www.ao3399.com | www.2846v.com | 20160913.in | 04666k.com | www.wcp6698.com | www.6687b.com | www.015456.com | hcp5588.com | 8381o.com | www.77114a.com | www.51515x.com | www.6hg6668.com | www.v03888.com | 3009z.com | yypxrht.cn | www.43131z.com | www.75345.cc | www.b3410.com | www.8799.cc | 5004.cc | 3568xx.com | 32212b.com | www.540977.com | www.7406.Com | www.9170105.com | www.83008d.com | xpj55658.com | 35222k.com | xhgx2.com | www.196203.com | www.61500.cc | www.js99938.com | www.ke00852.com | www.yh-9.com | 87965yy.com | l3405.com | 22291166.com | www.978913.com | www.410057.com | www.jz95588.com | www.83008y.com | www.js388999.com | 00773u.com | rrr5144.com | 73122.com | www.558610.com | www.26299q.com | www.56011k.com | www.33707.com | www.66146.net | www.682855.com | 00224002.com | 02.bet | 444000xxx.com | www.3668r.com | www.hg4355.com | 9411uuu.com | 65786578.net | aaa2848.com | 1591911.com | www.80065v.com | www.866546.com | www.49956d.com | www.99094i.com | www.f80288.com | www.esb125.com | www.3170006.com | www.dh03035.com | xbqjn.com | 702279.com | cc01234.com | 69111y.com | www.50054r.com | www.77537e.com | www.1869s.com | 3189n.com | 3668yh.com | 39199d.com | 43234323.com | bj399.com | 86811w.com | 55559193.com | 30006k.com | www.96386o.com | www.433112.com | www.hx7766.com | www.9155k.com | www.68682c.com | www.9286.com | www.75499.com | www.alpk88.com | www.xpj1122.cc | 26444f.com | 9149y.com | 2146g.com | 61327755.com | 44772007.com | 9170110.com | 3846ff.com | 500c6.com | 167605.com | 3640a.com | 3726k.com | 5478888.com | 5360q.com | 7893w17.com | 11zz145.com | 472704.com | 7811bb.com | 99151j.com | 2844f.com | 5622a.com | 0008.io | 00773aa.com | 69444466.com | f21148.com | 3416n.com | pj88pp.com | 001122335.com | sha0000.com | 554fq1.com | 8827mmm.com | o00351.com | www.m.hg763.com | www.323006.com | www.866890.com | www.f5566.com | www.606881.com | www.221678.com | www.129786.com | www.cp0016.com | www.4136m.com | www.6687.com | www.495414.com | www.hd8674.com | www.hg6767a.com | www.33588r.com | www.ywzuqiu.com | www.855765.com | www.514377.com | www.66332i.com | 9411xxx.com | rrr8827.com | 83086g.com | 2490.com | tt1030.com | 1077vv.com | www.28758i.com | www.6861767676.com | www.tm2818.com | www.44c.com | www.ldz333.com | www.7240i.com | www.66652f.com | www.hy6934.com | www.444602.com | 33318w.com | 2595g.com | yyy4255.com | amjs68332.com | 866666v.com | www.58777v.com | www.0866.com | www.bwinyz15.com | www.aa888.cc | www.9818h.cc | www.621410.com | 08778d.com | 4001.com | 3405ttt.com | uu5443.com | www.n27229.com | www.65579b.com | www.45598l.com | www.871453.com | www.938901.com | 4379w.com | t5429.com | 00003365.com | www.77764400.com | www.11p1.cc | www.q32939.com | www.hg1245.com | www.c148.vip | 61320077.com | 0860d.com | 56988r.vip | www.25025.cc | www.4972o.com | www.js9999.bet | www.912481.com | 7935v.com | 9029.com | 0033b.cc | www.033001.com | www.hg6668.la | www.2846.cc | www.550284.com | 1259i.com | 8037ll.com | www.753055.com | www.55526v.com | www.699679.com | www.817824.com | 7799833.com | 78808h.com | www.ylg268.com | www.ag3535a.com | www.7zz66.com | www.810625.com | 66771381.com | 2jszzz.com | www.9996ff.com | www.88166q.com | www.81520l.com | www.178153.com | vip332.com | 383744.com | www.466799.com | www.56011c.com | www.904854.com | 3056.com | 3365.com | www.1818xpj.com | www.91779k.com | www.022sx.cc | yk801.com | gg7742.com | www.58777i.com | www.673888g.com | www.3552n.com | 40661112.com | tz977.com | www.tbkmi8889.com | www.b30666.vip | www.3416r.com | 3333740.com | x33i.vip | www.ytgj444.com | www.9971003.com | www.361770.com | 4776611.com | www.8n8.com | www.hg8zz.com | www.igcp6.com | 11000.com | 0077886.com | www.01593.com | www.50064c.com | 99306d.com | 2096z.com | www.76775h.com | www.ya2019h.com | 54549955.com | k77304.com | www.733400.com | www.yun588.com | 87570ht.com | b72227.com | www.xpj66989.com | www.710502.com | lll0055.com | 8557a.com | www.my95.net | www.2934o.com | yh55.com | www.66664400.com | www.hg8ww.com | www.800471.com | 31436688.com | www.362848.com | www.350c9.com | www.33598e.com | 84497755.com | www.1274uu.com | www.50051c.com | 8988g.com | www.888746.com | www.m32031.com | www.235952.com | 5647v.com | www.kj8018.com | www.7793x.com | 889vip.net | www.866918.com | www.615069.com | 10222.com | 2698l.com | www.7415hh.com | www.558429.com | 5080.cc | www.09848.com | www.hm5522.com | 13633.com | www.2233kk.net | www.50788c.com | 1489h.com | www.777444f.com | www.818993.com | 4546119.com | www.6491r.com | www.99094f.com | vns8m.com | www.xin2.net | www.8866gvb.com | 7744fff.com | 58802r.com | www.pjjtzy.cc | 22556.com | 7935d.com | www.44118u.com | 88304j.com | 17159455.com | www.3421s.com | 11443885.com | www.ag6.com | www.3303.com | 998s.cc | www.dy1166.com | www.2350w.com | g82365.com | www.wd6668.com | www.574577.com | 838388w.com | www.256531.com | 4809e.com | www.bb1365.com | www.55238e.com | bet3658.com | www.ii7966ii.com | www.ban02.com | 13222q.com | www.255793.com | www.52072g.com | 1389vv.com | www.ejylc11.com | 4812d.com | www.wns82.com | www.864955.com | 3308a.com | www.06386655.com | 683bet.com | www.00829x.com | www.20995.cc | 9679f.com | www.A11100.COM | aa3335.com | www.pjhebei.com | www.50051w.com | z21148.com | www.7334c.com | 414199.vip | www.7111o.com | www.ay7799.com | bg5888.com | www.7681004.com | 2698h.com |