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  • 首頁>古建風采>園林展示>詳情
    園林 | 園林的基本類型有哪些?
    2018-08-30 16:18:42 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:王艷

      按園林的基址選擇和開放方式劃分:

      人工山水園、天然山水園  

      1、人工山水園

      人工山水園是在平地上開鑿水體、堆筑假山,人為地創設山水地貌,配以花木栽植和建筑營構,把天然山水風景縮移模擬在一個小范圍之內。這類園林多修建在平坦地段上,尤以城鎮內居多。“城鎮山林”園林的四要素——建筑、山石、水體、植物全是出于人工,因此造園所受的客觀制約條件少、人的創造性可以最大限度發揮。人工山水園是最能代表中國古典園林藝術成就的一個類型。

    園林

      典型代表:頤和園

      2、天然山水園

      天然山水園一般建在城鎮近郊或遠郊的山野風景地帶,全部或部分以天然山水植被為建園基址,對基址的原始地貌因勢利導做適當調整、改造、加工,適當配以植物栽培和建筑營構,一般包括山水園、山地園和水景園等。興造天然山水園的關鍵在于選擇基址,如果選址恰當,則能以少量的花費而獲得遠勝于人工山水園的天然風景之真趣。

      典型代表:泰山、黃山

      2按從屬關系劃分:

      皇家園林、私家園林、寺觀園林

      這三大類型是中國古典園林的主體、造園活動的主流、園林藝術的精華薈萃。此外,還有一些非主體亦非主流的園林,如祠堂園林、書院園林、會館園林以及茶樓酒肆的附屬園林等。另外,陵園、壇廟、風景名勝區等外似園林,因其特殊含義而不歸屬園林范疇。

      1、皇家園林:苑、苑囿、宮苑、御苑、御園

      屬于皇帝個人和皇室所有,是專供帝王休息享樂的園林。皇家園林按使用情況的不同分為大內御苑、行宮御苑、離宮御苑三種類型。

      (1)大內御苑:即皇帝的宅園,建置在皇城和宮城之內,緊鄰皇居或距皇居很近,便于皇帝日常臨幸游憩。

    園林

      典型代表:故宮

      (2)行宮御苑、離宮御苑:建在都城近郊、遠郊的風景優美的地方,或者遠離都城的風景地帶。兩者不同點:行宮御苑供皇帝偶爾游憩或短期駐蹕之用;離宮御苑作為皇帝長期居住、處理朝政的地方,相當于一處與大內相聯系的政治中心。

      典型代表:承德園林

      2、私家園林:園亭、山莊、別業、草堂等

      私家園林屬于民間的貴族、官僚、縉紳、文人和富商(皇權的補充和延伸)所私有。由于封建禮法制度的約束,私家園林無論在內容和形式上均不同于皇家園林,其特點是:規模較小,常用假山假水,建筑小巧玲瓏,色彩淡雅素凈。

      典型代表:北京的恭王府,蘇州的拙政園、滄浪亭,上海的豫園等。

      3、寺觀園林

      佛寺和道觀的附屬園林,營造清幽雅致的環境,追求人間的恬適寧靜。封建政治體制決定了宗教的地位,寺觀的建筑形制逐漸趨同于宮廷、邸宅。

      典型代表:少林寺、五臺山等

      3按地域劃分:北方園林、江南園林、嶺南園林

      1、北方園林

      主要地處黃河流域的西安、洛陽、登封、開封、曲阜、北京等古都古城,其中以北京園林為代表,多為皇家園林。這些園林風格粗獷,人工建筑偏于厚重,是我國古代園林的宏麗之作。如北京以山水取勝的“三山”。

      2、江南園林

      “江南”是指長江下游太湖流域一帶,以南京、無錫、揚州、蘇州、上海、杭州、嘉興等地為多,蘇州為最,故有“江南園林甲天下,蘇州園林甲江南”之說。

    園林

    網師園

      典型代表:蘇州拙政園、留園、網師園等

      3、 嶺南園林

      主要分布在以珠江三角洲為中心的潮汕、東莞、番禺、廣州等地,以宅園為主。嶺南地區終年常綠,又多河川,具有明顯的熱帶、亞熱帶風光特點,造園條件十分優越。園林多為景觀欣賞與避暑納涼相結合,近代受西歐造園技法的影響,建筑高而寬敞、輕盈秀雅、室內造景、內外呼應,具有綜合型園林的特征。

      嶺南四大名園:廣東佛山的梁園、順德的清暉園、東莞的可園、番禺的余蔭山房

      此外,按園林的藝術風格還可分為規則式園林、自然式園林、混合式園林。我國的一些少數民族地區,在宮殿、寺廟、庭院也附建具有濃厚民族色彩和宗教氣氛的園林。如西藏拉薩的羅布林卡,譯為“寶貝園林”,園內宮殿聳立莊嚴,林木蔥郁,曲折幽靜。

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