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  • 首頁>新聞發布>學術研究>詳情
    臨港產業的特征、發展路徑與發展趨勢研究
    2018-01-29 13:03:52 來源:古建中國  作者:郭斌  責任編輯:周玲

      我國的臨港產業發展起源于改革開放之后,相對于西方發達國家起步較晚,雖然近年來保持了較高的發展速度且部分地區的臨港產業發展較好,但是就宏觀而言仍與發達國家之間具有較大的發展差距。因此,借鑒國外的先進經驗并總結我國類似地區的成功經驗,對于促進我國臨港產業的持續健康發展具有重要的意義和價值。

      一、臨港產業的發展特征研究

      臨港產業是依托港口和區域資源優勢而發展起來產業,具有大運載量、大耗水量、大進大出、技術密集性高、經濟外向度高的經濟特征。從全球范圍來看,當前臨港產業正在向多元化、融合化、綜合化和信息化方向發展,現代制造服務一體化逐漸成為未來臨港產業區發展的趨勢。臨港產業的布局與港口緊密相連,布局于臨港的產業主要有三大類:需要依靠港口資源的直接與江海有關的產業;原材料和產成品大量依靠船舶運輸的產業;與具有臨港優勢的產業上下游關聯性較強的產業。

      結合對杜伊斯堡、芝加哥、圣路易斯、孟菲斯、蒙特利爾及我國沿海港口、長江經濟帶內陸港口等地區的研究分析,和君咨詢認為,目前世界重點臨港產業區主要形成了以鋼鐵行業、機械行業、汽車制造、船舶制造、石油化工、食品加工等為主的產業結構。

    臨港產業的特征、發展路徑與發展趨勢研究

    全球臨港產業結構及主要發展特征

      二、臨港產業的發展規律研究

      據和君咨詢研究,在臨港產業的整個發展過程中,隨著產業由初級向高級,由單功能向多功能,由專業性向綜合性的發展,各港口由于資源稟賦、區位條件、經濟發展程度、所采用的經濟政策的不同,大體上可以分為如下四種不同的臨港產業發展階段。

      第一階段:以航運業為主導的航運服務型

      這是臨港產業發展的初級階段,臨港地區開發緩慢,臨港產業以港口的運輸業為主,港口區位優勢明顯,畜牧、漁生產加工業及簡單工業開始在港口周圍布局,產業規模較小,中小企業零散無序地坐落于臨港地區之中。港口區域主要肩負著對外貿易和簡單農副產品加工的任務,產業結構單一,臨港區域的主要功能是運輸的貨場和中轉站,此臨港產業發展模式中臨港產業缺乏統一的布局和良好的規劃,港口通常以優越的區位和優惠的稅費吸引廣大客戶。相對而言,收入也以運輸費、稅收和儲藏費為主,此階段經濟效益較低。

      第二階段:以制造業為主導的工業實力型

      此階段臨港重化工業逐漸發展起來,成為臨港產業重要組成力量,臨港經濟抵御經濟風險的能力進一步加強。采用這種臨港產業發展模式的港口分為兩種:一種是由“以貨物運輸為主導的簡單航運服務型”臨港產業轉型升級而來;另一種是在港口建設期間同時規劃臨港產業園區,大型鋼鐵、石化、裝備制造等重化工企業進駐園區。該階段的產業結構相對于第一階段有所提升,科技含量明顯提高,因為產業的性質要求臨港產業大型化、產業布局規范化,經濟效益提升明顯。臨港產業區大量鋼鐵、石油化工、裝備制造等重工業企業為社會創造大量勞動職位,對GDP及稅收貢獻可觀。但是,這種“大進大出”資源導向性工業對于環境的污染嚴重,應在對于污染的處理上多下功夫。

      第三階段:以重輕工業為主導的混合型臨港產業

      重工業為主的臨港產業后期,適度地進行產業結構調整,效率低下的、落后的產能被淘汰。效率較高的、先進的技術被引進,重工業產業升級的同時,又發展出口加工業,或兼容其他輕工業。這一階段可以看成是第二階段發展后期的成熟階段,其主要特征是產業結構的升級調整及科技含量較高的輕工業的出現,產品附加值進一步提高,環境污染得到有效控制。

      第四階段:以高科技產業為主導的綜合型臨港產業

      隨著臨港地區經濟發展,臨港地區土地價格逐漸上漲,占地規模大的工業企業難以承受,經濟效率低、科技水平低、污染嚴重的產業逐漸轉移到內陸地區,技術密集型行業逐漸占據著臨港產業的主導,高端裝備制造、集成電路、海洋生物、電子信息、新能源、新材料等高端產業逐漸占據著臨港產業的主導。與此同時,金融、貿易、旅游等臨港第三產業逐漸在臨港地區發展壯大。較前面幾種階段而言,這一階段的臨港產業是較為發達的高級階段,其主要特征是科技領先、經濟發達、環境友好、社會和諧,這標志著臨港產業發展到高級階段。

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