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  • 首頁>裝飾藝術品>陶瓷藝術>詳情
    古色古香將軍罐 漢族陶瓷藝術珍品
    2018-05-14 11:26:31 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:周玲

      將軍罐,是中國陶瓷藝術的珍品,因寶珠頂蓋形似將軍盔帽而得名。初見于明代嘉靖、萬歷朝,至清代順治時基本定型,清康熙朝最流行,罐身為直口,豐肩,斂腹,平面砂底,附寶珠頂高圓蓋。

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    精美陶器·將軍罐

      將軍罐的器型出現于明末,明末的將軍罐,器型較為矮、拙。到了清代順治時期基本定型,造型為直口、短頸、豐肩、鼓腹。腹下部漸收,多為平底無釉,通體渾圓,器型高大。康熙時期,是將軍罐廣為流行的時期,這時的造型,將渾圓的罐體展肩提腹,拉長頸部,收緊圈足,使得將軍罐的造型顯得挺拔向上,氣魄宏偉。

      關于將軍罐的用途,外行人常說的版本有兩種,一:將軍罐為古代皇帝獎賞給戰場上有功的將士,這將軍罐是古代軍人至高無上的榮譽;二:將軍罐為專供將軍級人物使用的一種瓷器,古代的將軍家里都用這種瓷器來裝東西。實際上,對古玩稍微有點了解的人都知道,將軍罐原本的用途類似于今天的“骨灰盒”。明朝嘉萬時期,佛教寺院為裝殮僧、尼圓寂火化后所遺骨灰,訂燒了一批專用骨灰罐,將軍罐就這樣誕生了。

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    將軍罐擺設

      早期口大罐高,晚期口小罐矮。常畫仕女嬰戲、洞石花鳥兩種圖案,往往底部無釉露胎,胎體厚重,足邊有火石紅,官窯產品尺寸小,常在腹部繪團壽紋,底部圈足滿釉書有本朝6字款。蓮子罐、瓜罐、冰梅罐、竹節蓋罐,罐身繪翠竹紋,除青花外,還有白釉綠彩。鼓式蓋罐、獅鈕蓋罐、粥罐,為康熙朝創新式樣,多是民窯產品,尺寸不是很大,形體矮而圓,底部無釉露胎,肩部有對稱雙圓孔,穿有銅環,便于提用。罐蓋分圓頂和平頂兩種,前者多置寶珠形鈕,后者無鈕。

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     將軍罐

      瓷器藏家認為,荷葉罐、大蓋罐都是將軍罐的前身。現在,市場上也有現代燒制的將軍罐,體積非常巨大,有的甚至高達一兩米,擺設起來非常有氣勢,就現代的技術而言,要制作大型的將軍罐也不是一件容易的事情,無論是拉坯還是燒制都相當困難。可想而知,在古代生產條件下,體積大的將軍罐更加難得。

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    家居裝飾·將軍罐 

      由于將軍罐的造型受人喜愛,因此不論是官窯還是民窯都大量地燒造,特別是民窯的制造,從內容到形式都是以老百姓喜聞樂見的題材為主,有戲曲人物、神話故事,這些題材紋飾比較繁縟,在小器物上很難展示,而高大的將軍罐,則可以將這些題材全面地展示出來,深受廣大百姓的認同。

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