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  • 首頁>裝飾藝術品>木器藝術>詳情
    八仙桌|四時有香 品茗談天
    2018-04-23 16:50:21 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:劉海旺

      八仙桌,中華民族傳統家具之一。指桌面四邊長度相等的、桌面較寬的方桌,大方桌四邊,每邊可坐二人,四邊圍坐八人(猶如八仙),故中國民間雅稱八仙桌。八仙桌在用于吃飯飲酒是可以圍坐八個人,故名八仙桌。

    八仙桌

    八仙桌

      幾案類家具的歷史至少可以追溯到有虞氏的時代,當時稱為俎,多用于祭祀,案的名稱在周代后期才出現,宋高承選《事物紀原》載:“有虞三代有俎而無案,戰國始有其稱。”桌子的名稱在五代時方才產生。現今可考的八仙桌至少在遼金時代就已經出現,明清盛行,尤其是清代無論是達官顯貴還是平頭百姓幾乎家家都可以尋到八仙桌的影子,甚至成為很多家庭中唯一的大型家具。

    八仙桌

    清代八仙桌

      從結構和用途上講八仙桌的流行存在著很大的必然性。普遍認為在大型家具中八仙桌的結構最簡單,用料最經濟,也是最實用的家具。其使用方便,形態方正,結體牢固。親切、平和又不失大氣,有極強的安定感,這也使得八仙桌成為上得大雅之堂的中堂家具。

      由于八仙桌的桌面比較大,數百年方可成才的珍貴硬木都很難出得如此完整,沒有瑕疵的大料,所以除柴木外很少有整塊料做成的桌面。

    八仙桌

    八仙桌結構

      八仙桌家具僅三個部件:腿、邊、牙板。桌面邊長一般要求在0.9米以上,桌面邊抹都做得較寬,攢框打槽,以木板做面心板,面心板通常為兩拼,(在湖南湘潭一帶,面心板一般為三塊),桌面心后面裝托帶,以增大桌面的牢固度及承重度,也有用瓷板、癭木、云石作桌面的。

      到了明代,八仙桌的造型已基本完善,分為有束腰與無束腰兩種形式,有束腰的工藝是,在桌面下部有一圈是收縮進去的,而無束腰的即四腿直接連著桌面。至清代時,八仙桌大部分改成帶束腰的,腿有的也改成了三彎腿,牙板加了很多如拐子龍、浮雕吉祥圖案等裝飾性的部件,美觀性很強,做工很精巧。

    八仙桌

    家居擺設八仙桌

      每逢正月初九,古人素有“拜天公”的習俗,這天,家家戶戶都會擺放這樣的一張“八仙桌”,桌子上擺滿各式供品,非常豐盛。此外,農歷七月初七或者家有喜事時,家中也會出現這樣的場景。通過親子手工,再現家鄉風俗,讓孩子了解傳統文化,這是一種值得提倡的方式。

    八仙桌

    古樸八仙桌

      無論廳堂裝飾的典雅還是簡單,甚至粗糙,只要空間不是特別逼仄,擺上一張八仙桌,兩側放兩把椅子,就會產生非常穩定的感覺,如一位大儒,穩定平和。

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