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  • 首頁>古建風采>古建古筑>詳情
    明清時期的皇家檔案庫 皇史宬
    2018-09-07 13:39:40 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:王艷

    北京市東城區南池子大街136號,是一座紅墻高筑,古老而神秘的院落。這座在明代被譽為“仿古石室”、“制崇蘭臺”的特殊建筑,在清代更是被乾隆帝有詩贊為“瑤函金匱前朝制,殷鑒兢兢念在慈”。為何這座建筑倍受明清兩代的尊崇?它是因何而建?又是因何偏居一隅?讓我們走近這座格局別致的古老檔案庫——皇史宬,探尋它那鮮為人知的前世今生。

    明清時期的皇家檔案庫 皇史宬

    皇史宬匾額

      皇史宬,是中國現存最完整的皇家檔案庫,明清兩朝均在此收藏皇家的珍檔秘籍。皇史宬始建于明嘉靖十三年(1534年),其獨特的廡殿式全磚石結構使其歷經數百年保存完好,“石室金匱”的豐富庋藏,更為我們留存了珍貴的檔案文獻遺產。

      我國最早建造石室金匱用于收藏檔案文獻,始于西周。到了明代,仿照古代“以金為匱,以石為室,重緘封之,保慎之義”的傳統,“不用木植,專用磚石壘砌為之”,建造了皇史宬。明嘉靖十五年(1536年)建成的皇史宬,在東華門外迆南,與普渡寺相近,位于紫禁城的東南方。當時的皇史宬同重華殿、宜春宮、洪慶宮、崇質宮等建筑組成東苑內宮殿群,與紫禁城渾然一體,互相輝映,蔚為壯觀。明朝后期,東苑逐漸衰廢。入清以后,又逐漸被改建,原宮殿建筑不復存在,唯專門用于存放明朝皇家檔案的皇史宬留存下來。

    明清時期的皇家檔案庫 皇史宬

    皇史宬

      今天看到的皇史宬建筑群由宬門、正殿、東、西殿及御碑亭五部分組成,座北向南。整個院落圍以高墻,總占地面積8460平方米,建筑面積3400平方米。正院前是東西通道,東西各有一座大門,東大門關閉,出入西大門(臨南池子大街)。正中為皇史宬門,左右各一旁門。正殿全部用磚石壘砌,前額懸掛滿漢合璧“皇史宬”匾。殿內拱券穹頂,漢白玉高臺上列銅皮鎏金雕龍樟木匱,尊藏明清歷朝皇帝實錄、圣訓、玉牒等。東、西兩個配殿,為仿無梁殿外形的磚石木結構,存貯石刻法帖檔案副本等。東配殿北側有嘉慶皇帝御碑亭一座。

      皇史宬正殿是中國古代石室金匱檔案庫的典范。它的建筑和設備,全部磚石結構,不用木植,既可以防火,又堅固耐久;南墻厚6.10米,北墻厚5.84米,東、西墻厚3.70米,堅實的墻壁可保持室內冬暖夏涼,避免溫度劇烈變化;對開的窗子,便于通風,有利于調節室內溫濕度;1.42米高的石臺,既可泄水,又能防潮;銅皮鎦金樟木柜,也能起防火、防潮、防蟲等作用。在我國四、五百年前的科學水平和技術條件下,建成這樣一座設計精巧、格局別致、堅固耐久、風格獨特的古老檔案庫,堪稱我國建筑技藝史上的杰作。

    明清時期的皇家檔案庫 皇史宬

    皇史宬·四庫全書

      1911年清王朝被推翻之后,皇史宬的管轄權一度輾轉于溥儀小朝廷的內務府,民國時期改由北平故宮博物院。

      新中國成立之后,北京市政府將皇史宬列為市重點文物保護單位。1955年國家檔案局成立,皇史宬移交國家檔案局管理。1982年,皇史宬被定為全國重點文物保護單位。

      歲月流金,昔日的皇家檔案庫,現歸于珍藏千萬件明清歷史檔案的國家級檔案館——中國第一歷史檔案館,古老的石室金匱見證了歷史的滄桑,正煥發出新的生機。

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