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  • 首頁>古建風采>古建古筑>詳情
    故宮養心殿的前世今生
    2018-09-06 13:43:33 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:王艷

    9月3日,故宮養心殿研究性保護項目修繕開工,這座著名的宮殿迎來了百余年來的首次大修。這里曾是清朝皇帝的寢宮和政治心臟,是僅向世人展示過三成內景的神秘之所……

    故宮養心殿的前世今生

    故宮養心殿

      故宮·養心殿

      如今,故宮養心殿閉門謝客,千余件從未與世人謀面的文物搬離大殿,一次“世紀大修”在緊閉的殿門內悄然拉開序幕。走過長長的甬道,開鎖,推門,院落里的光景不復當年。腳手架遮蔽了碧瓦紅墻,一位位戴手套、著藍褂的文物修復師取代了往昔如織的人流。凝視這處已經存在了近500年的地方,打量木格窗欞內那鮮為人知的斑駁陸離,一同感受,殿外的滄海桑田與殿內的緩慢呼吸。

      前世

      養心殿,始建于明嘉靖十六年六月,萬歷二十二年曾修葺。它比鄰乾清宮,處在內廷的最南端,去乾清門、西華門等都非常方便。

      順治十八年正月初七日,順治皇帝因患天花崩于養心殿。康熙朝以后,養心殿的功能有了變化,康熙初年于此設養心殿造辦處,養心殿作為皇帝日常學習、接見臣工的場所,御膳房曾設于此處。

      到了雍正元年,養心殿成為了皇帝的寢宮和日常理政的中心,更取代內廷乾清宮的地位,成為清代宮廷政治活動的中心,見證了清代歷次內政外交、帝王崩逝等重大歷史事件的發生。

      養心殿也是故宮古建筑群中最具典范意義的代表。它的主體建筑是明代官式建筑的遺存,殿內裝修則引入了滿族文化,并利用自西方傳入的繪畫,開創清廷獨有的藝術形式“通景畫”。

    故宮養心殿的前世今生

    養心殿布局一處

      今生

      不過,養心殿區域目前存在著諸多問題。比如大木構件出現不同程度的殘損,西配殿前檐檐柱下沉,全區的椽飛、連檐瓦口、望板等普遍存在糟朽現象等等。

      2016年,故宮啟動“養心殿研究性保護項目”。2018年9月3日,在經過兩年多的文物記錄、撤陳,文物殘損病害的修復,古建筑勘察測繪,匠人培訓選拔等工作后,養心殿正式進入修繕工作的實施階段。

      本次修繕范圍占地面積約7707平方米,建筑面積約2540平方米。修繕內容包括遵義門內的養心殿、工字廊、后殿、梅塢等13座文物建筑及其附屬的琉璃門、木照壁等。

    故宮養心殿的前世今生

    養心殿正脊內的寶匣

      在開工儀式上,故宮博物院院長單霽翔取出養心殿正脊內的寶匣。這個寶匣是錫制、扁方形,其上可見青龍彩繪,標注年款顯示“嘉慶六年”。這種有彩繪的寶匣非常罕見。

      過往幾十年間,養心殿與不同時代的觀眾隔窗相望。大家都希望能透過殿外的玻璃窗,捕捉到遠在歷史另一端、封建帝王們在此生活過的蛛絲馬跡。

      4年之后,養心殿將有超過80%的區域面向公眾開放,到那時,觀眾們可以身臨其境地去感受歷史。而不必再隔著攢動的人頭和厚重的玻璃,卻只能瞥見冰山一角。關于養心殿,舊的故事并沒有結束,而新的故事,才剛剛開始。

      “養心殿不但有非常‘有故事’的過去,

      還有‘有尊嚴’的現在,

      能夠‘可持續’地走向未來。”

      ——故宮博物院院長單霽翔

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