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  • 首頁>古建風采>古建古筑>詳情
    潛口民宅 青瓦白墻間的民居情懷
    2018-09-04 15:49:05 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:王艷

    潛口民宅,位于安徽省黃山市徽州區潛口村紫霞山麓,北距黃山風景區40千米,西距屯溪(黃山市政府所在地)23千米。潛口村歷史文化悠久,相傳東晉大詩人陶潛曾隱居于此,又是黃山之口,故名潛口。村內現存多處明清古建筑。

    潛口民宅 青瓦白墻間的民居情懷

    潛口民宅

      口民宅建筑群占地約70 余畝,地形高差25 米。拆遷集中保護了民居、祠堂、牌坊、路亭、石橋等不同類型的明代建筑十三幢、清代建筑十一幢。典型的徽派古建筑。

      按照徽州明、清時期山莊形式總體布局。每幢建筑之間保持一定距離,中間鋪筑石板路,房前屋后鋪有石板,周圍栽植傳統花卉、樹木加以點綴。

      潛口民宅山莊門廳為3開間門廊,高檐如蓋,8根梭往拔地而起。入門有一不大的院落,中間立有3間五樓茶園石牌坊,不遠處,有小溪自西向東環山而過,溪上橫跨有單孔石拱小橋,名“蔭秀橋”,過橋循道登山,路有一亭,四角高翹,名“善化亭”,順山勢北轉,即見“樂善堂”,二進3開間,無樓。北面毗連著“曹門廳”,9開間的門庭一字形展開,8根獻柱整齊劃列。入門有四廊,與明堂正廳連接。穿過門前石坪順勢而下,有“司諫第”,二進明廳式,中間天并設池,四周繞以石柱,中架單孔石拱小橋。山莊北側為一組宅第分別為吳建化宅、方觀田宅、方文泰宅、蘇雪痕宅。

    潛口民宅 青瓦白墻間的民居情懷

    潛口民宅·徽派古建筑

      20世紀80年代,國家文物部門為搶救保護散落在徽州不宜原址保護的古建筑,采取易地搬遷、原狀復原、集中管理的方式,將原位于歙縣、徽州區境內的一批明代建筑陸續搬遷至潛口紫霞山,依據明代山莊樣式,復原重建,形成現在潛口民宅明園的格局。潛口民宅易地搬遷、集中保護的方法在20世紀80年代全國文物界尚屬首次實施,工程實施嚴格執行了文物維修的標準,得到了專家學者的一致好評。因其成功的探索,被譽為古建筑保護的“潛口模式”。

      1998年,清代民居保護工程的規劃與請求,也很快得到國家文物局批準,在潛口民宅保護范圍內,進行清代民居保護工程,清園采取了傳統村落聚集一條街的格局。為適應對外開放需求,特別強調建筑樣式的豐富性和觀賞性。2006年竣工。清園的建成,使潛口民宅成為時間跨度500多年,越明、清兩代,成為徽州古建筑的精品保護展示地。

    潛口民宅 青瓦白墻間的民居情懷

    古牌坊

      潛口民宅按照“原拆原建、集中保護”的原則,集中保護了明清時期最具典型的古民居、古祠堂、古牌坊、古亭、古橋、古戲臺等24幢古建筑,具有極其重要的歷史、藝術和科學研究價值,是研究中國古建筑學的珍貴實例,被譽為“我國明代民間藝術的活專著”,“人文景觀和自然景觀高度和諧統一的典范”。1988年,被國務院公布為全國重點文物保護單位, 2014年,作為古徽州文化旅游區的重要組成部分,被評為國家5A級旅游景區。

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