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  • 首頁>古建風采>古建古筑>詳情
    桃坪羌寨碉樓建筑 神秘的“東方古堡”
    2018-09-03 16:44:12 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:王艷

    電影《殺生》中有這樣一個取景地:八卦布局,村巷迂回,如迷宮,似地道。似乎一走進去,永遠都無法逃離。這就是桃坪羌寨。

    桃坪羌寨 神秘的“東方古堡”

    桃坪羌寨建筑群

      桃坪羌寨

      桃坪羌寨,羌語“契子”,依山傍水,土沃水豐,人杰地靈,岷江支流雜谷腦河自村而過。桃坪羌寨歷史悠久,據史料記截,寨子始建于公元前111年,西漢時即在此設廣柔縣,已有2000多年的歷史。

      這個寨子是羌族建筑群的典型代表,寨內一片黃褐色的石屋順延著陡峭的山勢逐坡上壘,碉堡林立,被譽為最神秘的“東方古堡”。

      這是世界上保存最完整的尚有人居住的碉樓與民居融為一體建筑群,享有“天然空調”美名。寨內的巨大碉樓,雄渾挺拔,屹立于比肩走袂的村寨中,高高低低,從數米到數十米,建筑形式有四、六、八角,以土、石、麻筋、木為料,有的僅用土木。

    桃坪羌寨 神秘的“東方古堡”

    碉樓

      寨子是一處石碉與民居合二為一的建筑群,片石與黃泥砌成的堅固經歷了無數的地震后仍完好無損。

      墻體和墻體之間的巷道深幽而神秘,因一些巷道上搭建了房屋,于是有了無數暗道,走入其中就像步入了歷史的迷宮。桃坪羌寨打破了中國傳統古城設東、西、南、北四方修筑城門的格局,筑成了以高碉為中心的放射狀8個出入口。

      寨子內部用13個通道織成四通八達的道路網,連接著每家每戶,寨內人進出自如,而外來人卻如入八陣迷宮,非本寨人指引,不可通行。寨內的地底下,挖掘了眾多的引水暗渠,上蓋石板和土,一定距離間,留有活動石板,揭開即可取水。

    桃坪羌寨 神秘的“東方古堡”

    桃坪羌寨

      這些水渠方便、保密,在寨內編織成流經每棟碉樓的水網,為戰時提供了巨大的生存空間。其完善的地下水網、四通八達的通道和碉樓合一的迷宮式建筑藝術,被中外學者譽為“羌族建筑藝術活化石”、“神秘的東方古堡”。

      桃坪羌寨似乎濃縮了羌族千年歷史,在桃坪羌寨內,羌民們依然保留著傳統的生活習慣。從田間采摘蘋果的孩童到門前穿著整齊民族服飾的老者,從正在織羌繡的婦女到喝著青稞酒的漢字,都呈現出一種田園牧歌式的生活境界。

      羌族最隆重的民族節日為“祭山會”和“羌年會”,分別于春秋季舉行,是一種充滿濃郁宗教色彩的春禱秋酬的農事活動,從中能折射出遠古神秘文化的光輝。

      寨子集古樸濃郁的民風民俗,神奇獨特的羌民族建筑,天然地道的羌族刺繡和奔放的羌族歌舞,展示著古樸迷離的羌族歷史。

      “一夜羌歌舞婆娑,不知紅日已瞳瞳。”夜幕降臨,篝火熊熊,羌家人圍在一起咂酒、載歌載舞。

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