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  • 首頁>古建風采>古建古筑>詳情
    東坡書院|緬懷先賢 桃李遍布
    2018-03-30 10:20:16 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:劉海旺

      宜興東坡書院位于宜興市丁蜀鎮蜀山南麓,屬江蘇省重點文物保護單位。作為宜興東南八鄉培養人才之地。光緒三十二年,廢除科舉,改位“東坡高等小學堂”后為“東坡小學”所在地,至此,“東坡桃李”遍于天下。

    東坡書院

    東坡書院

      元豐七年(1084年),蘇軾買田筑室于蜀山南麓,擬終老陽羨,這便是“東坡草堂”,之后又擴建成“東坡別墅”。元代在原址上建起“東坡祠堂”,后又廢為僧舍。明弘治十三年,工部侍郎、宜興人沈暉在此重建“東坡書院”,作為文人學士例行集合、緬懷先賢之所。清代康熙、乾隆年間多次修繕、擴建。

      咸豐年間,書院被焚。光緒八年,當地二十四家望族合資重建“東坡書院”,2002年10月,書院被列為江蘇省文物保護單位。同年,頂蜀鎮政府籌資全面修建“東坡書院”,恢復七間四進,并新建碑廊180平方米,以傳承“東坡文化”,使古老書院煥發青春。

      東坡書院與中國歷史上杰出的文學家蘇東坡有著密切的關系,他才華橫溢,對中國文學藝術的日臻發展有著多方面的貢獻,尤其散文,為世人稱道,被列為唐宋八大家之一。

    東坡書院

    東坡書院·庭院

      東坡書院,屋宇四進。第一進,面闊七間。兩側二間,保留著清吏部員外郎周家楣書“東坡買田處”、清浙江巡撫伍道榕書“講堂”、清江寧布政使楊能格書“似蜀堂”舊匾三塊。第二進是主建筑七間,上懸三塊大匾,均為第一進中三塊匾的復制品。大廳正面墻上,嵌清代重修書院的碑刻七方。第三進前為“講堂”,后稱“似蜀堂”,可見蜀山。第四進為七間樓房,登樓可見市鎮近景和太湖遠景。

      書院內大殿和兩側耳房,展出蘇東坡許多書稿墨跡、文物史料和著名的《坡仙笠屐圖》。還有郭沫若、鄧拓、田漢題詠的詩刻及書畫名家的藝術作品。書院大殿在載酒堂后面,兩者相隔一庭院,左右兩側是廊舍,與載酒堂相邊,形成一個四合院,庭院中有一棵上百年的芒果樹,葉茂蔭濃,使整個庭院顯得幽靜肅穆。東坡講學的彩雕陳列大殿正中,蘇東坡、功儒家黎子云等人物形象栩栩如生。館前東坡笠屐銅像矗立在姹紫嫣紅的鮮花叢中。

    東坡書院

    東坡書院·廳堂

      屋前堂院古木幽茂,群芳競秀。院門正中掛有一塊“先生悅之”的大匾,兩旁有長聯:“生面重開更有客吟詩對此茂林修竹;芳蹤如晤看執經問難依然沂水春風”。院內展出蘇東坡許多書稿墨跡和文物史料,載酒堂內陳列著歷代名家詩畫的碑刻,明初宋濂題寫的“東坡笠屐圖”勒石立在其內。東坡講學的彩雕陳列大殿正中,蘇東坡、蘇過、黎子云等人物雕像栩栩如生,成為海南重要的人文景觀之一。

      在東坡書院兩側各有一座小跨院,分別叫作東園、西園。西園是座花圃,在花海中蠢立著蘇東坡銅像,他手握書卷,腳踏芒鞋,儒雅風流。東園里有一口井,叫欽帥泉,為明萬歷年間所挖,井水清涼甘冽。書院中還設有展覽館、望京閣等供游人參觀、游覽。

    東坡書院

    東坡書院雕像

      蘇東坡曾在北宋元豐七年,在天遠堂手植西府海棠一株。今海棠仍能開出滿枝繁花。1982年,宜興縣人民政府撥款重修天遠堂和海棠院,林散之題有“海棠無恙”之額。

    東坡書院

    東坡學堂

      東坡書院雖已經歷了900年的風雨侵蝕,但當地人民出于對蘇東坡的懷念仰慕之情,幾番修建、擴建,東坡書院已完全恢復了當年風貌,成為頗具規模的旅游點。

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