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  • 首頁>古建百科>古建文化>詳情
    徽派建筑——高雅奢華的門罩文化
    2018-09-11 14:53:55 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:王艷

    徽派建筑的大門是整個民居的重點,門樓設計是徽派建筑的亮點之一,徽州當地有“千金門樓四兩屋”的說法。門樓、門罩是房屋的臉面,可以有效的從側面反映出此間主人的家業、職業、家丁多寡程度以及價值取向和治家理念等信息,同時更能夠彰顯主人的社會地位和影響力等。

    徽派建筑——高雅奢華的門罩文化

    徽派建筑門樓

      門罩與文化習俗

      在徽州,沒有相同的村落,也找不到雷同的門。門樓設計與當地自然環境、人文環境融為一體,具有鮮明的地域特征和時代特色,凝聚著徽州的文化內涵,其中蘊涵著豐富的理念和完美的工藝。

      “寧可內簡也要外奢”是徽州人的普遍心態,因而,徽州民居都很重視門罩的裝飾。門樓是一戶人家貧富的象征,故名門和富豪的家宅門樓建筑特別考究。“門第等次、“門當戶對”中的“門”即為門樓。門樓的建造,需要向外人展示自己高貴的門第,以及祖上余蔭或自身的優越之處。

      門樓與風水

      造宅安門之事浸潤著濃重的傳統風水文化,無論造門時間朝向,還是周邊環境如何,都與陽宅風水相關聯,風水中雜糅了幾乎中國傳統文化的各種成分,繁雜且神秘。在篤信風水的徽州先民眼里,門是具有神秘色彩的,是一種精神寄托,既可以給家人帶來幸福吉祥,也可以帶來災禍。

      人們在造門時費神費力,慎重講究,以求鎮宅避邪,趨吉迎祥。徽州古民居宅第中常見的寶葫蘆、斜門、泰山石敢當以及門頭上的剪刀、照妖鏡等,無不是人們借助于風水觀念而賦予門以趨吉避邪的意義。有些豪門大宅在大門左右各放一對石獅子或一對石鼓,以求驅邪保安。

    徽派建筑——高雅奢華的門罩文化

    門罩雕刻種類繁多

      門罩的風格與形式

      門樓頂部通常為挑檐式建筑,門楣上有雙面磚雕,一般刻有“紫氣東來”“竹苞松茂”的匾額等。斗框邊飾有花卉、蝙蝠等吉祥圖案,有錦上添花之美感。

      門罩是用磚貼著墻面砌出來,頂上覆以瓦檐,豎的是柱,橫的是枋,有一些門罩還有斗拱層。

      門罩的大小,繁簡也有很大差別。簡單的門罩只有兩根貼墻的短柱,中間有一道橫枋,整個門罩出檐很小,只帶很少的磚雕。復雜的則有多層梁相疊,梁枋上全布滿了雕飾,成為貼在門上的一件磚雕工藝品。

      1.額枋:處于斗拱之下,似門樓上比較顯眼的部位,稱之為“通景”。它是以磚雕的整體形象布局,如同一幅綿延不斷的風景,因而得名。大多采用浮雕,透雕,圓雕等方法綜合運用,使磚雕的層次最多達六七層。在紋樣的題材選用上,多充滿故事情節的人物造型,構圖豐滿,形象生動,不厭繁復。

      2.方框:位于額枋之下,在門樓中成組排列裝飾,有二個,四個或八個不等的方框組成。其紋樣的主題相對獨立,互不聯系。

      3.元寶:因形如元寶而得名。根據情況選擇有二個,四個或八個不等組成一套元寶裝飾。但每一個元寶的圖案都是獨立的。

      4.掛落:是位于柱于枋交界處的建筑構件,由邊框,欞條和花芽子等組成。其掛落的邊緣有方的,圓的,以及八角的等形狀。花芽子則多鏤空的花鳥雕刻,分置在掛落底邊兩角。

      5.垂花:是指垂花門上的對稱裝飾,因狀如向下垂掛的花而得名。垂花門是具有中國傳統建筑文化特色的建構,其雕刻精致,每個部位都有所不同。垂花,似用于垂蓮柱上的裝飾,有蓮花瓣,石榴頭,串珠,繡球或花籃等多種造型,因其均為倒垂形式,觀之宛若一對含苞欲放的花蕾。

      6.匾額:是門樓上鐫刻的文字招牌。通常似在字的四周刻有花卉,壽字等紋飾。

      7.雀替:似古建筑中枋與柱相交處的托座。從柱頭部分挑出承托其上之枋,借以減少枋的凈跨度,并起加固和裝飾的作用。

    徽派建筑——高雅奢華的門罩文化

    徽派門樓磚雕

      磚雕與裝飾紋樣

      徽州門罩上的磚雕主要體現在額枋、方框、元寶、雀躍、掛落、垂花等。磚雕雕刻工整、線條流暢、主題突出、層次分明。

      門罩上的裝飾圖案,有花鳥、人物、戲出、生活場景和吉祥紋飾等。每一種裝飾紋樣都代表著主人的社會地位和對美好生活的憧憬。

      民間傳說

      據說當年朱元璋攻占徽州后,時常外出求賢人、訪名師。一日朱元璋又出門拜訪賢士,半路遇雨,于是在路邊一戶人家的門框下避雨,其時風急雨斜,雖有門框遮攔,但還是被雨淋得渾身濕透。

      多年后,朱元璋做了明朝的開國皇帝,在一次批閱徽州人關于建造房屋事宜的奏折時,想起當年在徽州避雨時的尷尬場景,于是朱筆一揮,規定徽州人建房時要加蓋門罩,以起到遮風攔雨的作用。

      徽州能工巧匠并不機械地執行皇帝的命令,而在門罩上飾以圖畫、彩繪,并配以水磨青磚雕刻,使之既然美觀又符合皇上旨意,并代代流傳至今。

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