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  • 首頁>古建百科>古建文化>詳情
    古建色彩密碼:故宮顏色知多少
    2018-06-04 13:59:36 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:倉海霞
     

      建筑的色彩與裝飾在建筑藝術中是重要的視覺表達元素,它滲透在政治、文化、歷史等很多方面,它以最直接的方式傳達著建筑的文化內涵及藝術情感。色彩,也常常構成建筑特有的藝術形象,給人們還來獨特的審美感受和難忘的印象。

    故宮的顏色

    故宮

    What?

    故宮的古建主要用什么顏色?

     

      在故宮參觀游覽的時候,你或許會發現故宮的建筑大多數都是“紅”、“黃”這兩種顏色的,除此之外,“青綠”也有很多。屋頂的黃色琉璃瓦和屋檐下的青綠色的彩繪對比鮮明,柱子和梁枋等位置的主色調一般都是朱紅和金黃,在一片朱紅和金黃之間,間或勾勒出一些青綠線條圖案,使得整個故宮的建筑都顯得雍容華貴,流光溢彩。故宮里這些建筑的色彩和宮殿建筑常用的色彩是一致的。紅色是故宮的主色調,紅、黃、青綠構成故宮的基本色。

      “朱墻金瓦,朱門金釘”,可以說是故宮建筑的最大特色。當年,民間謠傳,說故宮所有宮殿都是用金子做的,包括屋頂也是全金子的;還有人說每當正午時分,你只要從山上瞅瞅故宮,就會發現這座宮殿放射出如金子般的亮光。

    故宮的顏色

    故宮·紅墻

    Why?

    故宮的古建為什么要用這些顏色?

     
    1
    等級劃分

      認真觀察古代建筑,你會發現古代建筑是按嚴格等級劃分來用色的。等級制度在用色中的體現可以追溯到周朝。從那時候開始就有這嚴格的用色規定:朱紅是天子的專用色,諸侯一般用黑色,大夫用青色,士只能用黃色。到了后來,特別是漢代以后開始盛行陰陽五行說,因為土地和谷物的顏色是黃色,黃色成了社稷的象征,所以黃色逐漸成了皇家的專用色。在宮殿建筑中,屋頂的琉璃瓦和室內的裝飾彩畫上一般都是黃色的。這些都是帝王建筑的專用色。

    2
    視野享受

      從色彩學上來看,紅黃和青綠是互補色,互補色的搭配一般會顯得和諧而富有美感,所以在宮殿建筑上,墻面如果用朱紅色的話,屋檐下一般就會用青綠色。紅黃和青綠色在故宮建筑中相輔相成,交相輝映,形成了一個有機的整體。

    故宮的顏色

    故宮·黃·琉璃瓦

    How?

    故宮是如何使用這些顏色的?

     

      在中國傳統觀念中,黃色是最高貴的,這是因為中華民族起源于黃土高原的緣故。紫禁城宮殿的屋頂大部分都用黃色琉璃瓦,以象征皇權的至高無上,而普通平民,甚至高官貴族也絕不能使用黃色屋頂,否則就是大逆不道。

      末代皇帝溥儀在他的《我的前半生》中,就寫過這樣一段話:“每當我回想起自己的童年,我腦子里便浮起一層黃色,琉璃瓦頂是黃的,轎子是黃的,椅墊子是黃的,衣服帽子的里面、腰上系的帶子、吃飯喝茶的瓷制碗碟、包蓋稀飯鍋子的棉套、裹書的包袱皮、窗簾、馬韁……無一不是黃的。這種獨家占有的所謂明黃色,從小把我唯我獨尊的自我意識埋進了我的心底,給了我與眾不同的‘天性’。”因此,當他看見他的二弟溥杰的袖口里、衣里是黃色時,便立刻沉下臉來,訓斥說:“這是明黃,不該你使的!”

    故宮的顏色

    故宮·五彩

      除了紅黃和青綠這些主色調以外,故宮的很多背光處都有著輝煌耀眼的彩繪。在陰天下雨或者日出、日落的時刻,當黃的屋頂、紅的宮墻變得黯淡的時候,這些角落里的彩繪就開始大放異彩了。

      大多數建筑,特別是在大片的故宮建筑群落中體量比較大的主體建筑,整個建筑的上半部分,包括外檐、斗拱、脊檁和天花,從外到里都有彩繪。有的彩繪能看到,有的彩繪看不到。彩繪分布在建筑部件的每一個角落里。作為宮殿建筑,這些彩繪的存在當然也是為了極端地彰顯皇家的威嚴與榮耀。

    故宮的顏色

    故宮·古建彩畫

      北京故宮主要建筑的黃色琉璃瓦頂金碧輝煌、朱紅色的柱子與門窗、檐下處于陰影部位的青綠色略點金的建筑彩畫,在白色臺基的襯托下,使建筑物各部分輪廓更加鮮明,色彩別具一格,從而使建筑物更加富麗堂皇。各部不同的顏色,是封建社會等級制的體現,也代表了封建禮教在建筑上的內化。

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