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  • 首頁>古建百科>古建文化>詳情
    山西日升昌 晉商票號翹楚
    2018-05-28 10:21:03 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:周玲

      日升昌位于山西平遙縣,日昇昌票號前身為“西裕成”顏料莊,財東李大全和掌柜雷履泰于清道光四年出資30萬兩銀改營,是中國第一家專營存款、放款、匯兌業務的私人金融機構,以“匯通天下”著稱于世。

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    平遙日升昌 

      從清道光初年成立票號到歇業,歷經一百多年,曾經“執中國金融之牛耳”,分號遍布全國35個大中城市,業務遠至歐美、東南亞等國,以“匯通天下”而著名,被余秋雨先生譽為中國大地各式銀行的“鄉下祖父”。

      清代中葉,由于商品流通和貨幣周轉的需要,產生了一種專營錢鈔匯兌業務的機構,稱為“票號”,也稱“票莊”,或“匯競莊”,這個行業為山西人的包攬,又稱為“山西票莊”,它壟斷了全國的匯兌業,當時全國最大的票號共有17家,平遙人開的就占了7家。

    “匯通天下”日升昌 晉商文化的密碼

    日升昌院落

      公元1823年,由平遙西達蒲村李大全投資白銀30萬兩和細窯村掌柜雷履泰共同創立“日升昌”,從此結束了中國鏢局押送現銀的落后金融局面,極大地加速了商業運轉和貨幣流通,有力地推動了社會經濟迅猛發展。其經營的黃金時期年匯兌總額高達3800萬兩白銀,可謂“日利千金”。

      其經營網點遍布除東北、西北以外的整個中國,可謂“一紙風行”。然而,更讓人嘆服的是:票號產生的百余年間,外患頻頻,內亂不斷,日升昌在風雨飄搖的一百年,縱橫捭闔,雄視商界,形成了一整套極具現代意義的管理制度。

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    內部場景

      票號是很能賺銀兩的生意,估計從道光到同治年間50余年的時間內,財東李氏從日升昌票號分紅達200萬銀兩以上。李氏經商,對商號的經理實行聘任制,所以李氏最重視對經理的挑選。經理人選一經選定,便任其行事,平時概不過問。只是到結賬時,方聽取經理匯報,最后分紅取利,確定經理是否繼續聘任。

      除“日升昌”外。其它還有“南通北達,二盛二協”,即日升通,日升達、百川盛、萬源盛、協同慶、協同泰。這幾家大票號的總號設有平遙,分號除京城外,遍及全國各大城市及商埠碼頭,平遙城成為當時中國最大的票號中心城市。日升昌曾以“天下第一”、“匯通天下”而聞名。

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    地下金庫

      如今的日升昌舊址,已開辟為中國票號博物館。人們在這里所見所聞的是一百多年的過去。盡管日升昌小小的院落無法與現代銀行的摩天大樓相比,日升昌僅有的分號也無法與當代覆蓋全國的金融網點相比,但可以從日升昌看到當代銀行的影子,領略到中華民族的智慧,感受一種銳意改革的精神,鼓聞一個時代進步的聲音。

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