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  • 首頁>古建百科>古建微觀>詳情
    馬頭墻|青磚配小瓦 延伸出來的美麗
    2018-09-12 15:54:14 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:王艷

    黑和白,化作徽州的滄桑,讓徽州的號脈顯得古樸而又蒼茫。這是屬于徽州的印象,然而徽州的印象不只是黑白的渾厚,還有那點綠的溫馨,因為,黑是家的瓦,白是家的墻,在墻的里頭,是徽州人的生活故事。

    馬頭墻

     

      馬頭墻,又稱風火墻、封火墻、放火墻等,特指高于兩山墻屋面的墻垣,也就是山墻的墻頂部分,因形狀酷似馬頭,故稱“馬頭墻”。古建筑中屋面以中間橫向正脊為界分前后兩面坡,左右兩面山墻或與屋面平齊,或高出屋面,使用馬頭墻時,兩側山墻高出屋面,并循屋頂坡度迭落呈水平階梯形,而不像一般所見的山墻,上面是等腰三角形,下面是長方形。

      馬頭墻高低錯落,從外形看頗具風格,因而不僅是中國南方徽派建筑常用格式之一,也是徽派建筑的重要造型特色,曾有“青磚小瓦馬頭墻,回廊掛落花格窗”之說,用以概括明清徽派建筑風格。一般來說,優美的馬頭墻多見于徽州鄉村,而在繁華的都市中,馬頭墻則極為非常難得和珍貴。

    馬頭墻

    黑白輝映的馬頭墻

      馬頭墻的作用與寓意

      徽州民居的山墻之所以采取這種形式,主要是因為在聚族而居的村落中,民居建筑密度較大,不利于防火的矛盾比較突出,火災發生時,火勢容易順房蔓延。而在居宅的兩山墻頂部砌筑有高出屋面的馬頭墻,則可以應村落房屋密集防火、防風之需,在相鄰民居發生火災的情況下,起著隔斷火源的作用。久而久之,就形成一種特殊風格。而在古代,徽州男子十二三歲便背井離鄉踏上商路,馬頭墻是家人們望遠盼歸的物化象征,現在看到這種錯落有致,黑白輝映的馬頭墻,也會使人得到一種明朗素雅和層次分明的韻律美的享受。

      馬在眾多的動物中,可以稱得上是一種吉祥物,中國古代“一馬當先、馬到成功、汗馬功勞”等成語,顯現出人們對馬的崇拜與喜愛,這也許是古徽州建筑設計師們為什么要將這種封火墻,稱之為“馬頭墻”的動機。看到這些馬頭墻,人們常常會為徽派建筑設計師們那種高超的藝術創造力而驚嘆,徽派民居,高大封閉的墻體,因為馬頭墻設計而顯得錯落有致,那靜止、呆板的墻體,因為有了馬頭墻,從而顯出一種動態的美感。而從高處往上看,聚族而居的村落中,高低起伏的馬頭墻,給人視覺產生一種“萬馬奔騰”動感,也隱喻著整個宗族生氣勃勃,興旺發達。

    馬頭墻

    徽派民居·馬頭墻

      馬頭墻的分類與構造

      馬頭墻墻頭都高出于屋頂,輪廓作階梯狀,脊檐長短隨著房屋的進深而變化,多檐變化的馬頭墻在江南民居中廣泛地被采用,有一階、二階、三階、四階之分,也可稱為一疊式、兩疊式、三疊式、四疊式,通常三階、四階更常見,較大的民居,因有前后廳,馬頭墻的疊數可多至五疊,俗稱“五岳朝天”。磚墻墻面以白灰粉刷,墻頭覆以青瓦兩坡墻檐,白墻青瓦,明朗而雅素。

      馬頭墻的構造為,隨屋面坡度層層迭落,以斜坡長度定為若干檔,墻頂挑三線排檐磚,上覆以小青瓦,并在每只垛頭頂端安裝搏風板(金花板)。其上安各種蘇樣“座頭”(“馬頭”),有“鵲尾式”、“印斗式”、“坐吻式”等數種。“鵲尾式”即雕鑿一似喜鵲尾巴的磚做為座頭;“印斗式”即由窯燒制有“田”字紋的形似方斗之磚,但在印斗托的處理上又有“坐斗”與“挑斗”兩種做法;“坐吻式”是由窯燒“吻獸”構件安在座頭上,常見有哺雞、鰲魚、天狗等獸類。也有“金印式”或“朝笏式”,顯示出主人對“讀書作官”這一理想的追求。

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