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  • 首頁>古建百科>古建微觀>詳情
    伸出墻角的華麗——康百萬莊園墀頭之美
    2018-09-11 14:48:49 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:王艷

    古建筑中,墀頭是磚雕藝術的焦點。這是因為硬山屋頂的房屋正面大部分都是門和窗,墀頭正處于房屋正面的兩側,是山墻正面最突出的部分,雖然面積不大,但位置卻非常重要。中國人非常講究面子,表現在建筑上就是房屋正面任何一個細小的部分都會精雕細刻。在古代人眼里,面子也是禮貌、嚴謹,甚至可以說是家風的代名詞。所以,墀頭從某種意義上說就是房屋主人的心頭。

    伸出墻角的華麗——康百萬莊園墀頭之美

    康百萬莊園

      康百萬莊園是硬山式 建筑 的典型代表,其山墻上的“墀頭”都用磚雕裝飾,內容豐富,雕刻精美,堪稱墀頭文化藝術寶庫。

      墀頭筑于一棟房屋的兩邊墻上,俗稱“腿子”,或“馬頭”,多由疊澀出挑后加以打磨裝飾而成,所以成對使用。墀頭一般由上、中、下三部分組成,上部以檐收頂,為戧檐板,呈弧形,起挑檐作用。中部稱爐口,是裝飾的主體,形制和圖案有多種式樣。下部多似須彌座,叫爐腿,有的也叫兀凳腿或花墩。墀頭的裝飾簡繁不一,簡單的則全無雕飾,只疊合多層梟混線。而復雜的基本涵蓋了中國傳統文化中各類吉祥圖案,而且許多院落內的墀頭中的圖案往往取材于同一類吉祥圖案或同一組人物故事,具有明顯的連貫性和統一性。

      追溯墀頭的產生應該是伴隨著硬山墻的出現而產生的。硬山墻是將山墻伸出兩山屋面來保護山面木構,墀頭占據了銜接山墻與房檐瓦的部分。在明代磚的生產大發展之后開始普遍使用。

    伸出墻角的華麗——康百萬莊園墀頭之美

    墀頭

      裝飾圖案

      墀頭裝飾圖案大體上可分五類。

      一是植物類圖案,有梅蘭竹菊、牡丹、卷草等。梅蘭竹菊四君子,其幽芳逸致,清高風骨,千百年來始終是國人孜孜以求的品質。牡丹,富貴花,象征主人家財源滾滾、富貴祥和。卷草纏連不斷是對長壽、多子多孫的渴望。

      二是動物類圖案,常用鶴、鹿、麒麟、鳳凰、猴子、馬、蝙蝠等寓意明確的動物。松、鶴象征延年益壽。鹿寓意高官厚祿(鹿)。麒麟送子,希望早生貴子,子孫賢德。鳳凰,為百鳥之王,不僅形象美麗,又是祥瑞之鳥,象征美好和平。猴子騎在馬上喻馬上封侯。蝙蝠取福的諧音。

      三是器物類圖案,主要有四藝圖,博古圖,與宗教淵源的圖案。四藝圖指琴棋書畫,用來寓意書香雅閣,以鼓勵人們求學、讀書。博古圖,具有琳瑯滿目、古色古香的藝術效果,表現了主人追求清雅、高貴的意志。與宗教淵源的圖案,有佛教或道教用品以及宗教生活為內容的圖案,如"巴達馬"(蓮花)、道七珍(珠、方勝、珊瑚、扇子、元寶、盤腸、艾葉)、暗八仙(葫蘆、團扇、寶劍、蓮花、花籠、魚鼓、橫笛、陰陽板)等。"暗八仙"也有一定的宗教功能,即祈福禳災。它可以說是道教的符咒之一除此之外,暗八仙更多的是作為民間吉祥的象征,具有各種民俗功能。

    伸出墻角的華麗——康百萬莊園墀頭之美

    住宅區五院墀頭

      四是文字圖案,文字本身就具有很好的裝飾性,利用漢字的諧音可以作為某種吉祥寓意的表達,這在墀頭的裝飾運用中也十分普遍。常用的吉祥文字有"福"、"祿"、"壽"、"喜"四個字,都是美好的標志,也是中國人長期追求的幸福生活目標。

      五是綜合類圖案,運用多種象征手法,賦予圖案更豐富的含義,增加了趣味性和故事性。如植物和動物、植物和人物以及人物和動物的搭配等,更出現了人們喜聞樂見的人物故事和戲曲故事。

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