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  • 首頁>古建百科>古建微觀>詳情
    中國古建筑細節之美——影壁
    2018-09-07 15:20:28 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:王艷

    影壁,也稱照壁,古稱蕭墻,是中國傳統建筑中用于遮擋視線的墻壁。舊時人們認為自己的住宅中,不斷有鬼來訪。如果是自己祖宗的魂魄回家是被允許的,但是如果是孤魂野鬼溜進宅子,就要給自己帶來災禍。當然,影壁也有其功能上的作用,那就是遮擋住外人的視線,即使大門敞開,外人也看不到宅內。影壁還可以烘托氣氛,增加住宅氣勢。

    中國古建筑細節之美——影壁

    影壁

      影壁作為中國建筑中重要的單元,它與房屋、院落建筑相輔相成,組合成一個不可分割的整體。雕刻精美的影壁具有建筑學和人文學的重要意義,有很高的建筑與審美價值。

      影壁可位于大門內,也可位于大門外,前者稱為內影壁,后者稱為外影壁。形狀有一字形、八字形等,通常是由磚砌成,由座,身,頂三部分組成,座有須彌座,也有簡單的沒有座。

      墻身的中心區域稱為影壁心,通常由45度角斜放的方磚貼砌而成,簡單一點的影壁可能沒有什么裝飾,但也必須磨磚對縫非常整齊,豪華的影壁通常裝飾有很多吉祥圖樣的磚雕。影壁墻上的磚雕主要有中心區域的中央和四角,在與屋頂相交的地方也有混梟和連珠。中心方磚上面一邊雕刻有中心花、岔角在影壁墻的中央還鑲嵌有福壽字的磚匾或者是帶有吉祥一味的磚雕。精湛的雕刻技藝和不朽的藝術價值,充分體現了古代中國勞動人民的卓越才能和和藝術創造力。

      >>>>

      影壁的形制分類

      第一種,座山影壁。廂房的山墻上直接砌出小墻帽并做出影壁形狀,使影壁與山墻連為一體。

      第二種,一字影壁。影壁俯視平面成單一的細長條。有的一字影壁太長會顯得太單調,就將其橫向分為三段,中間長兩頭短,形成一主二從。

      第三種,八字影壁。在一字影壁的基礎上,將二從向內折,形成八字圍合狀。

      第四種,撇山影壁。位于大門兩側,與大門槽口成120度或135度夾角,平面呈八字形,稱做“撇山影壁”或“反八字影壁”。做這種撇山影壁時,大門要向里退2至4米,在門前形成一個小空間,可作為進出大門的緩沖之地。

    中國古建筑細節之美——影壁

    磚雕影壁

      >>>>

      影壁的材質分類

      第一種是琉璃影壁,主要用在皇宮和寺廟建筑,最具代表的是故宮和北海的九龍壁。

      第二種是磚雕影壁,大量出現在中國民間建筑中,是中國傳統影壁的最主要形式。其中一些影壁的須彌座采用石料雕制,但極其罕見。

      第三種是石制影壁,移建到北海公園的鐵影壁就是完全用石頭雕制的,民間很少出現。

      第四種是木制影壁,由于木制材料很難承受長久的風吹日曬,一般也比較少見。

    中國古建筑細節之美——影壁

    北海九龍影壁

      >>>>

      中國最精美的三大影壁

      最大的一座,保存在山西大同市內,原為明太祖朱元璋的第十三子朱桂代王府前的一座照壁,長達45.5米,高8米,厚2.02米。壁上雕有九條七彩云龍,有的撥風弄雨,有的騰云欲飛,栩栩如生,各具姿態。

      最華麗的一座是北京北海的九龍壁,原屬明代離宮的一座影壁。它由彩色琉璃磚砌成,兩面各有蟠龍九條。如果仔細查看,影壁的正脊、垂脊、筒瓦等處還雕有許多小龍,大小龍共計635條,可謂洋洋大觀。

      第三座九龍壁位于北京紫禁城里極門前。故宮九龍壁建于乾隆38年,是一座長20.40米,高3.50米的高大的琉璃照壁。九龍壁的正面共由270塊燒制的琉璃塑塊拼接而成,照壁飾有九條巨龍,各戲一顆寶珠;背景是山石、云氣和海水。

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