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  • 首頁>古建百科>古建微觀>詳情
    腳下踩的小小臺階,沒想到它這么“厲害”~
    2018-09-06 17:40:29 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:王艷

    臺階在古代時叫做“踏跺”的,在宋代,它又被叫做“踏道”,而現在我們把它叫做臺階,很明顯是臺階兄弟接地氣的表現,畢竟21世紀了文縐縐的名字很難記住,而且臺階又是一層一層往上走的,所以臺階的稱謂也自然而然延伸出來了。

    腳下踩的小小臺階,沒想到它這么“厲害”~

    踏跺

      看到臺階我們就知道它一般是由用磚或石條砌造而成的,所以除了有行走功能,它還能作為休息和座椅使用,成為人們休憩的臨時場所,特別是去一些公園、堤岸、或者是去爬山,不少人累了都會選擇坐在那里休息一下。

      臺階雖然看起來是簡簡單單的,但是你有沒有發現臺階的款式變幻多樣,有垂帶踏跺、如意踏跺、御路踏跺、礓碴等類型,單單聽著,我們是很難理解得到的,接下來匠子將圖文結合,這樣大家就會方便理解。

      這種臺階有著一個很吉祥的名字,叫如意踏跺,匠子猜測它叫如意不知道是不是因為這種臺階可以從不同的方向隨意上下,所以才會這樣稱呼。如意踏跺是每層石板的長度和寬度都逐層縮小的臺階,它比較多應用于園林建設,不過很多人家門口也會弄如意踏跺的,覺得它象征著如意吉祥的美好寓意,可以說如意踏跺應該是我們最常見的臺階了。

    腳下踩的小小臺階,沒想到它這么“厲害”~

    帶垂帶的踏跺

      上述的帶了像傳輸帶的臺階就叫垂帶踏跺,垂帶踏跺有一個特點就是它的臺階很工整,而兩邊各有一條“垂帶石。

      匠子覺得古人起名字很有韻意,在我們看來,這不就是在臺階兩側加個斜坡,可在古人眼中覺得臺階兩邊各有一條斜放的條石就像是加了兩條長長的“帶子”,所以垂帶踏跺也就是這樣來的。據說但宋代以前,建有兩座垂帶踏跺,東邊的叫東階,供主人行走;西邊的叫西階,供客人行走。

      其實踏跺本身就是方便行走,休息的一種利器,并沒有什么等級之分,但當臺階出現在宮廷或者是寺院中,這樣的踏跺就有了高大上的名字了,叫御路踏跺,它也是踏跺中的龍頭老大。

      御路踏跺其實很好辨認,御路其中間臺階部分不砌條石,而是順著臺階方向鋪放漢白玉或大理石等巨石,雕刻上龍紋等圖案,顯得富麗和壯觀,雖然叫路,但是人并不能在上面行走。其左右各有一列臺階用來行走,稱為“左右階”。

    腳下踩的小小臺階,沒想到它這么“厲害”~

    如意踏跺

      不過隨著發展,類似御路踏跺樣式的臺階很多也出現在小巷中,只是中間的石板是沒有刻東西的,這樣的臺階也很利于單車、一些需要運輸的重物,目前匠子也看到很多天橋也會有這樣的臺階。

      其實人家是叫礓碴,礓碴不像其他踏跺那樣是一級一級的,而是弄成這樣的鋸齒狀,遠看真的好像一個搓衣板。

      其實,礓碴是慢道的一種,這種路面不但可以行人,更方便車馬通行。除了一般建筑前方的礓碴外,在城墻上的馬道也多采用礓碴形式,方便城上城下運輸物品。

      除了上面4種,臺階還有一些是比較隨性的,而且現在臺階的材質基本上不僅僅是局限于石磚,也有很多地方的臺階還是采用木質的,玻璃等。而且造型也比較百變。

      看完文章后是不是發現臺階原來還有這么多種,學問有這么深奧,臺階不僅僅是一種工具,更是一段段不為人知的歷史,它經歷風吹雨打卻依然散發獨有的魅力,現今電梯代替樓梯,空調代替扇子,而普普通通的臺階還有多少人記起來?

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