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  • 首頁>古建百科>古建微觀>詳情
    匾額 門楣上的文化瑰寶
    2018-08-30 14:50:41 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:王艷

    中國的古建筑,凡亭臺樓閣,皆能見匾額。以匾額為一座建筑開篇、點題,若是領悟了匾額,便是遇見了一座建筑的靈魂。匾額又稱扁額、牌匾等,是中國古建筑與文化的結合,是古建筑的必然組成部分,相當于古建筑的眼睛。

    匾額 門楣上的文化瑰寶

    匾額

      從內容到款式,從材質到風格,都達到了與建筑水乳交融的境地。匾額一般掛在門上方、屋檐下。當建筑四面都有門時,四面都可以掛匾,但正面的門上必須要有匾。

      有一種說法認為,橫著的叫匾,豎著的叫額。但從《說文解字》中對“匾”、“額”兩字的解釋來看,匾額即是懸掛于門屏上作裝飾之用,反映建筑物名稱和性質,表達人們義理、情感之類的文學藝術形式。

      在古代就有以“匾”來識別萬物,以“匾”來區分貴賤尊卑,以“匾”來褒揚良善的習俗。可以說,匾額是一個家族的門臉,彰顯著家庭的門第層次,道德修養。歷史上曾出現“無處不匾”、“無門不匾”的盛況,匾額被稱為“古建筑的靈魂”。

    匾額 門楣上的文化瑰寶

    月波樓匾額

      在一些皇家園林或大戶人家的門頭上,多綴有匾額,匾額的四周邊框上,雕飾各種龍鳳、花卉,有的鎏金鍍銀、鑲嵌珠玉,極盡華麗之能事,彰顯身份與品位。

      匾額,不只是一座建筑的名稱,更多的是一種榮耀和精神存在,這份榮耀被立于墻上、門頭等顯眼的位置,為人所見,傳承發揚,激勵著后世。

      匾額分類多樣,按其內容主要分為,建筑園林匾、表彰歌頌匾、店家老字號匾這三類;一般材質大多為木質,也有石質雕刻的,以長方形多見,尺寸以門面大小而定。

      古建筑之上的匾額不僅賞心悅目,還能陶冶情操,是中華民族傳統文化中一道獨特的風景線。

    匾額 門楣上的文化瑰寶

    荷葉形匾額

      匾額之上,文字不多,多為黑漆金字,醒目端莊,寓意深遠,措詞文雅,書法勁壯美觀,儒雅之氣與生俱來,可謂“雅俗共賞”的典范。匾額開始,多用作宮殿、樓閣的標識。北宋時,隨著商品經濟的繁榮,商匾逐漸流行。明清時,匾額之風大盛,匾額內容追求意境和韻味。

      若是中國的山水園林,亭臺軒榭,沒有匾額,那就只能稱作為一座建筑物,而有了文字書法的裝點,便能升華其精神意韻之所在。

      匾額懸于宅門,端莊恢宏;掛于廳堂,蓬蓽生輝;置于名勝古跡,活色生香。雖只言片語,少許著墨,望之卻巍然大觀,感悟其中真意,不禁讓人肅然起敬。

      在古代,大戶人家門頭常懸掛匾額,一塊匾額的身后,寄托了主人的信仰與堅持,承載著一個家族的輝煌歲月,鐫刻著一個姓氏的顯赫與榮耀。

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