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  • 首頁>古建百科>古建微觀>詳情
    石雕柱礎 撐起一座大殿的竟是它
    2018-05-11 13:33:33 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:劉海旺

      柱礎,顧名思義,即柱子的基礎,除古時偶用金屬材料外,絕大部分為石質,因此民間俗稱柱礎石,亦有磉石、磉盤之稱。它是中國傳統建筑中最基本的構件之一,對于木構建筑來說“一個蘿卜一個坑”,一根柱子一個柱礎,柱柱皆有,缺一不可。

    柱礎

    柱礎

      梁思成先生說過的一段話,簡明扼要地指出了柱礎的功用:“柱礎主要的功用在(于)將柱身集中的荷載(分)布于地上較大的面積。我國建筑結構自古即以木料為主,而柱礎卻均以石(為材料),因石質既可防潮,且高出地面,可免柱腳(遭)腐蝕或碰損之虞。”

    柱礎

    花瓣柱礎

      柱礎首要的功用,是承受由柱子傳來的屋頂(和梁架)荷載,并將其傳送到地基上。石材有很強的抗壓性,再加上柱礎的斷面比柱子直徑大,礎下的方石就更大,柱子傳來的荷載通過它可以均勻地傳達給地基。柱子并不是硬生生地接在柱礎上,而是有一定的活動空間,在地震的強力作用下,整座建筑猶如踩在滑板上,抗震性能極佳。在中國歷史上,木構建筑經歷強震后柱子偏離柱礎、甚至落在柱礎之外,整座建筑仍完好無損、屹立不倒的例子可謂屢見不鮮。

    柱礎

    承重柱礎

      《淮南子》有語:“山云蒸,柱礎潤。”——山中云霧繚繞之際,柱礎也濕了。民間也有“礎潤而雨”的說法:每年梅雨季即將開始時,空氣濕度驟增形成返潮,柱礎也跟著受潮了——換言之,要是沒有柱礎,受潮的就是柱子了。中國傳統建筑以木為主要構材,木不但怕火,也怕潮,所謂“朽木不可雕也”,木長期受潮會慢慢腐朽壞掉,對于木構建筑來說不啻是災難;而柱礎是石質,不但不怕潮,還能夠有效地隔絕潮氣,從而保護(木質的)柱子不受地氣侵襲而受潮腐敗。

      南北方的氣候差異,在柱礎上表現得尤為明顯:南方濕潤多雨,柱礎明顯較高;北方干燥少雨,柱礎也就低矮得多。再者,踩著柱礎這塊“墊腳石”,柱子的腿腳不容易被磕碰而損壞,也延長了使用壽命。

    柱礎

    防潮柱礎

      在漫長的歲月里,柱礎經歷了由簡而繁、由拙樸而華麗的演變過程。早先柱礎不是鼓形就是圓柱形,僅裝飾簡單的淺浮雕花紋或線條;后來明顯變高,形式也有變化,裝飾愈加豐富。成書于北宋年間的《營造法式》堪稱中國傳統建筑行業的“圣經”,書中對柱礎的形式、比例、裝飾紋樣等都做了詳細規定。

      盡管如此,宋以后,特別是清以降,民間的柱礎不拘一格乃至花樣百出,完全拋開了《營造法式》設置的條條框框。這想必是因為柱礎石體量比較小,好折騰;在建筑中所處的位置雖偏低,但畢竟在人的視線之內,好顯擺,所以工匠們樂于在柱礎上大顯身手炫技秀才藝,房屋的主人們也樂于在柱礎上表達自己的身份、地位和情懷,一拍即合。

    柱礎

    古建柱礎

      至此,柱礎成了中國傳統建筑中一道靚麗的風景,即使脫離了它所棲身的建筑,也往往會被人挪作他用而毫無違和感,甚至被當作石雕藝術品收藏起來。

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