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  • 首頁>古建百科>古建微觀>詳情
    天井——東方建筑里的空間魅影
    2018-05-10 11:00:39 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:周玲

      天井是指宅院中房子和房子或房子和圍墻所圍成的露天空地,南方房屋結構中的組成部分,一般為單進或多進房屋中前后正間中,兩邊為廂房包圍,寬與正間同,進深與廂房等長,地面用青磚嵌鋪的空地。

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    古建微觀·天井

      “天井”一詞出于典籍,原指四周高、中間低的地形。如《孫子兵法》中“凡地有絕澗、天井、天牢、天羅、天陷必巫去之,勿近也。”作為一種建筑空間形態,“天井”普遍存在于明清至今的中國傳統民居中。“天井”最早產生于何時,已無實跡可考。不過,因木骨泥墻的地面房屋由穴居而生發,屋居中的“井空間”由穴居中的“坑井”進化而來,邏輯上應是“天井”。故天井在中國古已有之,大概不會遲于西周陜西岐山鳳雛村四合院。

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    住宅天井

      天井是老宅采光最主要的構造,由于這個原因,客廳在古徽州被稱作“明堂”,于是又有了“四水歸明堂”之說,讓上天飄蕩而下的一切充滿靈性的東西歸于老宅,這只能理解為古徽州人的一種企盼了。天井采光可分為直接采光和間接采光,直接采光指采光窗戶直接向外開設;間接采光指采光窗戶朝向封閉式走廊、直接采光的廳、廚房等開設,有的廚房、廳、衛生間利用小天井采光,采光效果如同間接采光。住宅其主要房間應有良好的直接采光,至少有一個主要房間朝向陽面。

      在自建房住棟內部設置天井的住宅稱為天井式住宅。天井式住宅增加了住棟內部的臨空面,有利于通風和采光,利用天井采光通風,可以加大棟深,減少每戶面寬,做到節地和節能。選用此種類型時,要注意處理好天井的通視、噪聲、防火等問題。天井式住宅依據天井面積大小又分大天井和小天井式住宅。大天井式住宅也有人稱為環廊式住宅。

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    院落天井

      內天井式住宅是借助內天井解決部分房間的直接采光通風問題的住宅。內天井的井壁實際是內向的外墻。這種住宅可以利用天井解決輔助用房的采光、通風問題,并能加大建筑的進深,節約用地。天井可以設置在單元的中間,也可以設置在單元與單元之間或將天井擴大成院。內天井因其尺寸大小不等,分為小天井、大天井兩類。一般把小于3乘3米的天井稱為小天井,小天井可解決1-2戶次要房間的采光通風問題;而大于3乘3米的天井稱作大天井,它可以解決多戶次要房間的采光和通風問題。

      從設計角度來講,天然采光的意義可能都知道,從我們人類來說是自然界凈化的生物,所以自然光對我們生理、心理都有非常重要的意義。另外,還有節能、綠色環保,有很多方面的意義。

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    現代化天井

      天井的存在完善了建筑中的通風、采光、安防的功能,并且在建筑中顯天露地,起到天地合一的作用,使天、地、建筑在空間中融為一體,也體現了中國傳統文化中天人合一的哲學思想。

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