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  • 首頁>古建百科>古建微觀>詳情
    拾憶老門環 叩響時光深處
    2018-04-27 14:20:45 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:劉海旺

      門環,莊重、威嚴、神秘、靜寂。在中國綿延了數千多年,看到這些老門環,會忍不住想上前扣響,傾聽著回聲有一種入夢之感,似乎下一秒就會有人緩緩打開院門,笑問一聲客自何來。

    ?

    門環

    門環

      門環,在中國綿延了數千多年的,集實用、裝飾和門第等級為一體的一種古建筑構件,也成為中國古建“門文化”中的一部分。

      門環,是中國古典“門文化”的精粹,是集裝飾、實用、習俗為一體的的建筑構件。在三坊七巷的巷弄里,各種各樣的門環靜靜沉睡,不僅僅傳遞著當年主人的身份故事,也傳遞著社會倫理秩序,好像每一個門環都自有屬于本身獨一無二的歷史和文化“密碼”。

    門環

    老北京門環

    老北京之叫門
     
     

      門環,昔日老北京住宅建筑的大門上幾乎都有,就是那些平民百姓居住的大雜院的街門上幾乎也都有門環。這既是裝飾物,更是人們“叫門”的必用物。

      “叫門”,應該算是老北京人的土話吧,就是回家的人們看到街門緊閉時,就要叩打門環來通知院子里的人為其打開街門,老北京人謂之“叫門”。

      另外老北京人有個特點,就是當邀請一個朋友去自己家串門兒時,一般都誠懇地說:“您到我家時,如果街門關著,您就輕叩門環,我聽見馬上給您開門去。”這“輕叩”二字既是提醒對方叫門時要注意文明禮貌,也表明自己對對方如何叩擊門環的重視。

    門環

    獸面門環

    門環符號
     
     

      門環的造型上能夠折射出宅主的身份和地位,是中國門文化中最能體現禮制建筑等級的裝飾符號之一。獸面銜環是帝王和權貴之家常見的樣式,如明清皇家建筑門環多為龍形鋪首銜環,象征皇家的威儀,具有更多的禮制涵義。民宅不能使用獸面銜環,而使用底盤為圓形、方形、六邊形、菊花形或梅花形,中央為圓形凸起的鋪首,再配以金屬掛件的門環。

      門環由底座和掛件兩部分構成,底座稱為“鋪首”、“門鋪”或“銅蠡”,由圓形、方形、多邊形或異形的镲鈸狀金屬構件反扣于門板之上,中間高凸位置連接一金屬環或金屬墜,以實現叩門或拉門的實用功能。

    門環

    門環紋飾

    門環寓意
     
     

      或許是因為門環位于人視線直接所及的位置,所以中國的能工巧匠們將人們對美好、平安的生活期待巧妙的化為各種樣式的門環,展示在門面之上。花卉圖案、吉祥動物,幾何紋樣、獸頭龍面等都是經常采用的裝飾方法。“蝙蝠”寓意“多福”;“葵花”寓意“多子”;裝飾“獅虎”寓意“鎮宅”;裝飾“蠡”(蠡為龍生九子之一,性情頑固,又習水性)寓意“防火”;裝飾“六邊形”寓意“六合”即“鹿鶴延年”等等。

    門環

    古宅門環

      親朋好友,遠親近鄰,老老少少,敲打了無數遍。幾代生存,幾代繁衍,留下了故事,留下了油漬,留下了人們生活的喜怒悲歡。輕扣老門環,傾聽歷史的回響。留下了事變,留下了歷史,這老門環就是見證。

      或許十年百年之后,門環之內已經人去樓空,寧靜清冷。但這些孤獨而寂寞的門環依然不知疲倦的睜著眼睛,無論春夏還是秋冬、無論白天或是黑夜,靜靜目睹著人世間一切。

     
     
     
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