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  • 首頁>古建百科>古建微觀>詳情
    倒掛楣子疏 高軒臨碧渚
    2018-04-04 13:10:55 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:周玲

      楣子是安裝于檐柱間由邊框和欞條組成的裝飾構件,有倒掛楣和坐凳楣子。倒掛楣子安裝于檐枋下,楣子下面兩端須加透雕的花牙子。坐凳楣子安裝于靠近地面部位,楣子上加坐凳板,供人小坐休憩。

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    楣子

      吊掛楣子由邊梃(垂柱)、抹頭仟邊欞條、花牙子(也稱小雀替)組成。邊梃,抹頭斷面尺寸相同,通常吊掛楣子邊梃、抹頭斷面尺寸為5cmx5cm(含窩角線寬0.5cm)。由于吊掛楣子不安裝玻璃,欞條看面尺寸隨外檐隔扇,而進深尺寸側大于隔扇,一般欞條看面為1.8-2cm、講深2-2.5cm,欞條內外起線均用泥鰍背(蓋面)形式。仔邊看面2.5-3cm、進深3-4cm。仔邊亦可不用,欞條直接交待在邊梃、抹頭上。

      吊掛楣子的寬度(高度)及欞條的布局、式樣基本上與坐凳楣子相同。欞條如采用步步錦、龜背錦或燈籠錦紋樣,一般每間可安排3組。邊梃下端除需要安裝花牙子以外,還要雕刻垂頭(俗稱白菜頭)。垂頭的高度一般為垂柱(邊梃)本身看面尺寸的2.5倍左右,其中上覆蓮略短、下覆蓮稍長,束腰占1cm-3cm左右。束腰可采用連珠或卷葉等形式。欞條如采用步步錦、龜背錦或燈籠錦紋樣,一般每間可安排3組。

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    楣子紋飾

      花牙子位于垂柱與下抹頭相交角的下方,垂頭的上是起裝飾美化作用花牙子是用薄木板雕刻而成,雕刻采用透雕的手法。雕刻所選用的紋樣較多,通常使用的紋理有夔龍、草龍、牡丹、梅竹、松竹梅、長壽桃、纏枝葫蘆等。

      花牙子的高度(寬度)與吊柞楣子竄度成一定的二的易甯外的上旦沼子總寬(上抹頭上皮至下抹頭下皮)的1/4些。花牙子的厚度約占邊梃。抹頭進深的1/2。花牙子側面制作榫頭插入邊梃垂頭以上相應部位的榫槽內。

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    古建筑楣子

      坐登楣子一般安裝在檐柱問、地面以上坐凳板以飛登板,下豐尊縣,承耗少登板,同時裝飾美化作用。坐登楣子的尺寸作法基本與吊掛楣子相同,也是邊梃(腿子)抹頭,仔邊、欞條組成。只是坐凳楣子不宜太高(寬),因為楣子上皮還安裝坐凳板,且坐登的高度一般應控制在50cm左右,否則人坐上去會很不舒朋。鑒于此,坐登楣子的邊梃加柱頂右鼓徑(因邊梃緊貼檐柱,立在檐柱柱頂石的鼓徑上)的總高不宜超過45cm。楣子抹頭上皮至下抹頭下皮垂直高度一般為40cm。楣子上欞條的式樣與布局應與上面的吊掛楣子相呼應。邊梃、抹頭、欞條的斷面尺寸也要與吊掛楣子相同。

      由于坐登楣子需要承擔一定負荷的重量,故在下抹頭至地面的空當內制安圭腳,圭腳可作成如意頭形狀;,也可以參照邊梃制作。圭腳一般每問安裝兩個,位于三組欞條的交界處。坐凳板安裝在檐柱之間,坐凳楣子上皮,是供人們休息之用的。坐凳板不可太薄,一般板厚為5cm,寬度可按柱徑尺寸或略大于柱徑尺寸。板與柱交接處要釘牢,在內外兩邊平面鋸成斜八字(板面成120度)即可。

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    楣子雕花

      楣子是用于有廊建筑外側或游廊柱間上部的一種裝修,主要起裝飾作用。均透空,使建筑立面層次更為豐富。正是通過對這一個又一個建筑符號的解讀,那份傳承千年的安定與優越才得以再現。

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