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  • 首頁>古建百科>古建技藝>詳情
    中國現存的宏偉至極的古建筑 古建技藝之高超
    2018-09-10 17:18:31 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:王艷

    正定隆興寺大悲閣,全木結構,體型龐大,覆壓四方,美學與功能的高度統一,現存最優秀的仿宋建筑(鎮江北固樓也是一個),作為原址重建(原建筑倒塌于風雨飄搖的晚清),也足以遙想當年盛況,建閣供佛是中國古代的一個特色,動輒數十米的大佛在古代稀松平常,相應的大佛閣也要高達數十米,甚至三百尺高度,可以想象那些已經遠去的古代建筑。

    中國現存的宏偉至極的古建筑 古建技藝之高超

    奉國寺

      遼寧人應該都非常熟悉,錦州義縣的奉國寺,遼開泰九年開始修建,由于工程過于龐大,一直到遼代滅亡也沒有建完,隔了三十多年,金天眷三年(1140年)才完成,橫跨兩代的巨大建筑,這個是個例子。大殿面闊九間(48.2米),進深十架椽(25.13米),為了容納高達九米的7尊大佛,大殿用了徹上明造和減柱造,徹上明造即精細加工梁架,展示上架的縱橫交錯的結構美,站在外面看大殿,深遠的出檐,龐大的斗拱就給人一種壓迫感,進殿,與自身極不成比例的佛像俯視你,你就好像一枚草芥一般,不自覺地進入了宗教氛圍。

      遼寧義縣奉國寺大殿的斗拱,斗拱用材碩大,比人要大上很多,材高29厘米,厚20厘米,雖與宋尺有出入,但折合可得宋匠尺9.3寸,一等材,與殿身規模相稱。

      這上面是福建三明的安貞堡,清代建筑,福建像這樣巨大的堡壘式民居,即土樓還有很多很多。

    中國現存的宏偉至極的古建筑 古建技藝之高超

    安貞堡

      為什么說是堡壘式民居?八閩不同音,歷來就是南下的客家人居住的地方,山高皇帝遠,家族之間的爭斗,土匪的騷擾不斷,像土樓這樣的建筑,外面墻壁用三合土夯筑,三合土即石灰+黃土+糯米汁,有時候為了防止開裂還要加明礬,干硬之后就刀槍不入,異常堅硬。用三合土做墓室,幾百年尸體都不會爛,效果等同于白泥膏。

      當然土樓除了防止刀槍入侵是不夠的,還要防火器,明代土匪就已經從西洋引進了火炮,可以進行火攻,但是面對高高聳立的三合土墻,大炮卻只能在墻面上打個小坑,炮彈最多嵌入到墻里,不構成大威脅,還可以依靠墻里的射擊孔進行伏擊。

    中國現存的宏偉至極的古建筑 古建技藝之高超

    應縣木塔

      應縣木塔,千年國寶,世界最高的木結構建筑物,其結構之復雜,體量之巨大,外觀之宏偉,足可以難倒一片現代的結構工程師,乃至千年之后它有梁架結構閃歪,竟不知道如何去修才好。中國有如此國寶建筑,是國之幸。

      恒山懸空寺,依山勢地形而建,遠觀如懸掛半空,層樓聳翠,飛閣流丹,非常壯觀。

      云南獨宗格古城的松贊林寺,無論是體量還是規模,都屬于土木結合的巨型建筑,清晨的霧氣還沒散去,宛如天上宮闕。

      故宮各個地方的建筑裝飾,中國古建筑對細節的極度追求可見一斑,這也是一種震撼。

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