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  • 首頁>古建百科>古建技藝>詳情
    磨磚對縫技藝 重逢在青磚灰瓦
    2018-09-07 16:12:18 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:王艷

    磨磚對縫是古代建筑中的一種高級建筑工藝,即將毛磚砍磨成邊直角正的長方形等,砌筑成墻時,磚與磚之間干擺灌漿,墻面不掛灰、不涂紅,整個墻面光滑平整,嚴絲合縫。

    磨磚對縫

    回音壁

      磨磚對縫的砌法,先用磨器把青磚磨平,砌時以江米米湯為粘合劑,使磚的縫隙彌合。講漢族傳統建筑,就要談其特點是以木結構支撐達到了“墻倒屋不塌”的效果,繼而講造型繁復又具有減震功效的斗栱,再講等級分明顏色各異的屋頂。既然中國沒搞復雜的柱式,就在這兩部分上從秦漢之前就已經陸續玩出了很多花樣。

      回音壁

      回音壁是皇穹宇的圍墻。墻高3.72米,厚0.9米,直徑61.5米,周長193.2米。墻壁是用磨磚對縫砌成的,墻頭覆著藍色琉璃瓦。圍墻的弧度十分規則,墻面極其光滑整齊,對聲波的反射是十分規則的。只要兩個人分別站在東、西配殿后,貼墻而立,一個人靠墻向北說話,聲波就會沿著墻壁連續反射前進,傳到一、二百米的另一端,無論說話聲音多小,也可以使對方聽得清清楚楚,而且聲音悠長,堪稱奇趣,給人造成一種“天人感應”的神秘氣氛。所以稱之為“回音壁”。

      回音壁有回音效果的原因是皇穹宇圍墻的建造暗合了聲學的傳音原理。圍墻由磨磚對縫砌成,光滑平整,圓周率精確,有利于聲波的規則反射,加之圍墻上端覆蓋著琉璃瓦使聲波不至于散漫地消失,更造成了回音壁的回音效果。

      繁復造墻:

      多年前,半坡仰韶文化,古人開始采用木骨泥墻,初步將承重與圍護加以區別。商代已經有了成熟的夯土技術。木骨泥墻、木墻、木板墻、土坯墻、夯土墻、磚墻,時至今日,水泥都早不新鮮,各種不能叫“傳統”,只能稱之為“古老”的造墻法仍然在全國各地找到使用者,它們或有著地區成本優勢,或有著功能上的必要。

      在墻的歷史上,劃時代的是磚的出現,早在戰國開始燒磚筑墻,不過多是用于地下建筑;唐宋以后,磚浮出地面,《營造法式》中規定了“磚墻”和“磚隔減”兩種做法。磚成了墻最好的材料,使得墻逐漸不必依靠長而寬闊的出檐擋雨,這讓屋檐和墻體都開始有了更多變化。墻本身,看似無奇,其實有著豐富的變化與精巧的工藝,更早的工藝不好說,只從清代流傳至今的墻體做法就復雜講究得很。

    磨磚對縫

    磨磚對縫·墻面和竹片門

      磚灰,老話兒里有“九漿十八灰”的說法,分類比磚料更龐雜,單說做墻要用的,就有砌墻的、抹面的、勾縫的、給壁畫打底的、給影壁填當中一塊白的,配比用料各不相同,加沙子、黃土、灰渣、碎磚的都顯普通,加面粉、江米、桐油、鹽鹵、血料、棉花想必風味獨具一格。水泥砂漿雖然相對強度更高,卻在凝固過程中越來越收縮,砌筑不當,常常造成墻體空虛;

      傳統做法的砌磚灰漿在凝固過程中,其中的石灰粉會不斷膨脹,讓灰漿越來越充滿磚縫。刷面兒的灰漿,刷法上也有說道,某些只能涂刷厚度不能超過2毫米,有的要放個幾天等生灰遇水后的性質穩定或者秸桿軟化到適宜的程度。真用灰漿的時候,還要分室內外,哪種灰漿不能在露明處用,哪種性質穩定結實,顏色卻不夠正,要根據位置換漿。

      磨磚對縫墻面一角

      每組建筑還有自己的小院墻,一進院要有影壁墻,紫禁城里的多為五彩琉璃貼面,不像民間影壁灰墻中間涂白畫壁畫或者加飾磚雕、堆灰組字等等;房屋本身,從位置和形式上分,有置于房屋前后檐的檐墻、位于前檐門窗下的檻墻、用于房屋左右兩山的山墻、在室內進行空間分割的扇面墻和隔斷墻、室外廊子部分的廊墻;某些當作倉房的廡房,不僅要有隔火墻,后檐墻也會加以特殊處理,用磚將檁子包砌起來。

      傳統建筑看似死板僵化,其實古人們在進行設計和建造時無不耗費大量心力,連灰縫是凸出還是凹進,形成圓面還是斜面都要大加推敲。了解了古建筑的等級、形制,它們之間的組群關系也表現出了古人們的空間組合能力。即便是墻,一堵城墻可能會用到從夯土、土坯到外包城磚的好多種做法,不拘一格,不怕老套,又要根據地方特點、場地情況、氣候天氣來決定用料和砌筑法,這可能就是古人的聰明。他們失在沒有精確的計量,缺少施工標準,錯在尚未料到有一天這么講究的工藝會后繼乏人。

    磨磚對縫

     山墻磨磚對縫

      可是,對于“傳統”的形式上的取經卻常給人一種學藝不精的感覺,屢屢被人抱怨粗糙,鋼鐵、玻璃、混凝土所產生的中國樣式遠遠落后于傳統建筑本身的工藝水平,面磚貼出來的磚墻永遠不能產生與精細灰縫相同的效果,那樣的話,浮躁的表象就變成了東施效顰。

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