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  • 首頁>古建百科>古建技藝>詳情
    沒有一釘一鉚 侗族魯班打造千年不朽的木構建筑
    2018-09-03 17:26:41 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:王艷

    侗族木構建筑營造技藝是廣西三江縣最出色的民族民間傳統文化表現形式。三江侗族木質建筑以風雨橋、鼓樓為代表,不僅造型美觀,而且工藝堪稱一絕。整座建筑鑿榫打眼、穿梁接拱、立柱連枋不用一顆鐵釘,全以榫卯連接,結構牢固,接合縝密,有極高的工藝和藝術價值。

    侗族木構建筑營造技藝

    侗族鼓樓

      三國時期,侗族先人“依樹積木,以居其上,名曰干欄”,逐漸形成木構建筑營造技藝。侗族村寨的建筑時,有一些最基本的構件:鼓樓、薩堂(祖母祠)、戲臺、民居、禾晾、禾倉、寨門、涼亭、風雨橋,鼓樓前的歌坪。這十大件實際上已構成了一個完整的侗族村寨聚落于社區中的一個建筑群,其中最重要的當然是鼓樓、民居、薩堂、風雨橋了。

      二、建筑特點

      鼓樓是一個寨子的中心,鼓樓附近是歌坪、戲臺、薩堂,這四部分構成了侗寨的核心圈。緊緊地周繞著鼓樓的是民居住房圈,再外一圈是禾晾和禾倉,接著是寨門、涼亭、風雨橋。

      侗族的建筑匠師皆為當地的侗族民間工匠,侗族稱為“梓匠”。在設計鼓樓、風雨橋以及民居等時,他們憑借的工具只是一桿傳統的度量尺,稱為“匠桿”。“匠桿”用一片竹子臨時制成,長度相當于房屋中柱的長度,刮去青皮,用曲尺、竹筆和鑿刀把一座樓房的柱、瓜、梁、檁、枋等部件的長度和尺碼繪刻在上面,使用起來,橫比豎量,無不得心應手。

      傳統的侗族匠師還使用一套世代相傳的建筑符號,一般有26個符號,但常用的只有13個。這些像漢字又不是漢字的符號只有侗族的匠師才看得懂,它們被刻在“匠桿”上和建筑構件上,這種侗族鄉土的建筑學工具不愧為一種簡便易用的工具,雖然簡易但卻有神機妙用。

    侗族木構建筑營造技藝

    寨門

      1、寨門

      侗族的寨門為“井干式”木構建筑,侗族稱之為“現”。一般幾十到百來戶的侗寨,其寨門都修建得比較樸素,也不高大,大約寬1.6米左右,高3米左右。比較大的寨子就要把寨門修建得大一些,裝飾也要講究一些。侗鄉的寨門形式大同小異,風格有別。寨門分前、左、右三門或前、后、左、右四個寨門。這要看村寨的大小、通道的多少而定。

      在四面敞開的環境中,侗家的寨門實際上沒有任何防御的功能。從風水的角度考慮,寨門有貫龍脈、通聲氣的作用,除此之外,侗家的寨門更重要的功能是它的儀式功能,寨門對于侗家人來說,是一個很有文化性的特殊場域。村寨之間的大型的交往實際上是從這里開始也在這里結束的,因此,寨門不僅只是界標,它更是一個儀式的場域,是名副其實的禮儀之門。

      2、鼓樓

      鼓樓又稱“羅漢樓”,埋巨木為中心柱,建成塔形“獨角樓”,矗立于侗寨之中,立地頂天,成為侗家人的精神象征。

      侗族鼓樓

      侗家傳說鼓樓是照“杉樹王”的樣子建造的,總體輪廓真的很像杉樹,體現了侗族有關大樹崇拜的觀念。鼓樓內部有四根大柱直通而上,柱間長凳圍著中心火塘。樓頂懸大鼓,每遇大事擊鼓為號。塔式鼓樓除八角外,也有六角或方形的。鼓樓以杉木鑿榫銜接,頂梁柱撥地凌空,排枋縱橫交錯,上下吻合,采用杠桿原理,層層支撐而上。鼓樓通體全是本質結構,不用一釘一鉚,由于結構嚴密堅固,可達數百年不朽不斜。這充分表現了侗族人民中能工巧匠建筑技藝的高超。

      鼓樓之所以占據侗寨的中心位置,乃是因為它是一個神圣的空間。鼓樓的神圣性首先在于它風水意義上的特殊性:侗族人建寨時鼓樓的安放有“點穴”的意思,就像侗族歌謠中唱的那樣“鼓樓建在龍窩上”。不僅如此,它還有著多層的神圣含義。

    侗族木構建筑營造技藝

    侗族建造技藝

      侗族鼓樓

      鼓樓是一幢空洞的大屋子,除了火塘、板凳、木鼓之外,里面空空的沒有任何家具,不作任何私人性的日常用途。平常不用的日子里它就空閑著,人們可以隨便的自由進出,而鼓樓的閑置狀況恰好表明它同瑣細的凡俗的日常生活保持著一個疏離的立場。從禮儀上說,大器是不可輕易使用的,所以鼓樓總是在有特殊事務的時刻才會正式啟用。

      鼓樓的樓門前為全寨逢年過節的娛樂場地。每當夏日炎炎,男女老少至此乘涼,寒冬臘月來這里圍火,唱歌彈琵琶、講故事。侗寨有坐鼓樓的習俗。特別是春節期間,村村寨寨聚集鼓樓廣場,吹蘆笙,對歌作樂。或以侗族民間傳統故事為題材,自編自扮侗戲,登臺演唱。

     

      3、居民

      侗寨的居民住房以鼓樓為中心,逐層擴散開來,形成一個個或大或小的建筑群,民居是完全生活化的空間,以實用為考慮根本,故沒有鼓樓或風雨橋那樣多的裝飾和復雜的結構。侗族的民居建筑從最早的緣木“巢居”到原始的“棚屋”,到家庭公社共居的公房,最后發展到今天普遍可以見到的干欄式木樓,其間經過了漫長的演變過程。

      侗族的民居建筑就大類型而言,屬于典型的山地干欄式木樓建筑。所謂干欄式建筑,是指在地上或水中打樁立柱,樹欄桿,將房屋構筑其上,用這種方式修建的房屋通稱干欄式建筑。干欄式建筑在全世界皆有分布,此種建筑最初體現出的最實用的功能便是防水淹、防潮濕、防蛇蟲、防野獸等,中國南方民族多以干欄式居屋為主。這是由地形地貌、氣候條件、生態環境、森林資源以及文化傳承等諸多因素決定的。

      干欄式木樓一般是三層建筑,底層接觸地面,較為潮濕,易受蟲蛇侵擾,是不住人的,用來安放舂禾的石碓、堆放農具柴草、圈養家畜等等,第二層是住人的區域,有火塘、臥室、樓梯間、寬廊以及其他輔助空間,這是人們生活的主要空間。第三層一般是用來存放糧食,以及一些不常使用的生活用具,基本上是一個倉庫。有的人家也把這一層裝為臥室,以備待客時使用,臥室是一家之中私密性較強的空間,來客一般不隨便進入,只是主人作寢室之用。

      占用面積最大的既獨立又起連通作用的中介空間是二層樓上的寬廊,它是侗族民居內部的重要空間,在寬廊內往往放置著供婦女勞作的紡紗機、織布機之類的工具。寬廊一端與樓梯相連,內側與同廊道平行的各個小家庭的火塘間、寢室等相通。侗族的一幢大木屋,往往是一個父系大家庭共居的地方,兄弟之間各自結婚組成家庭后,有分家不分房的習俗,幾個小家庭共同居住在同一幢木屋內,寬廊就是由幾個小家庭組成的父系大家庭的不分彼此的公共空間。

      侗族民居的另一特征是“倒金字塔”形狀,即第二層在第一層的基礎上挑出60厘米左右,第三層又在第二層的基礎上再挑出60厘米左右,形成上大下小的倒金字塔形木樓,這是侗族人利用空間的一種辦法,這種占天不占地的辦法真可謂是巧奪空間。

      4、風雨橋

      風雨橋又稱廊橋、亭橋,就是在木懸臂梁式平橋上建造長廊。侗區多河溪,風雨橋幾乎每寨都有,有的并不只一座,是入寨必經之路。風雨橋既可供行人遮風避雨,又可兼作寨門,更是村民游息聚談之所。每逢盛節,外寨親友來會,全寨人齊集橋頭,盛裝出迎,唱欄路歌,奉敬客酒,賽蘆笙舞,顯示了濃郁的民族風情。風雨橋的選址十分注意成景和得景,使之既能妝點大好河山,又能在橋內觀賞到周圍的美好景色。

    侗族木構建筑營造技藝

      侗族風雨橋

      最大也最著名的風雨橋是廣西三江馬安寨程陽橋,跨在林溪河上,全長達78米,有二臺三墩五樓。中樓最高,頂部冠以六角攢尖亭,下為方形三檐;左右兩座都是方形,四檐,也是攢尖頂;最外兩座為矩形,四檐,歇山頂。在橋欄下有通長披檐,覆蓋橋下四層懸臂木梁。

      從日常生活的意義上來說,風雨橋要比鼓樓實用得多,不過風雨橋在實用之外,還有著豐富的文化隱喻。侗家的風雨橋在侗族的觀念中,已經遠不止是實用的工具,它實際上是侗族宇宙論圖式中的一個要素。

      風雨橋在侗族觀念中是溝通陰陽兩界的“生命之橋”和護寨納財的“福橋”,因此不吝雕琢修飾,使其集亭、塔、廊、橋為一體,壯麗輝煌。風雨橋這種超越了實用和美學的建筑,實際上是侗族具體地表現風水觀念的一種文化操作。

      侗族在建造風雨橋時,哪怕是最不講究的、最簡陋的風雨橋,絕大多數都要把它弄成多重檐的,或至少有兩層檐的骨架復雜的廊橋,即便是很短小的橋也會如此,人們甚至在橋的廊頂上修出數個多層檐的亭閣寶頂。這種橋看起來就像是帶了鼓樓的長廊。同鼓樓一樣,風雨橋上最顯著的裝飾物就是龍,人們還喜歡在風雨橋上大事彩繪以作紋身。這些繁復的形式與侗族和越人龍文化諸多淵源有關。

      風雨橋又稱花橋。這兩個名稱都非常有意味,風雨隱喻著龍可興風作雨;花則是龍的外形的直觀意象。從實用功能來說,這兩個名稱也非常貼切,風雨橋是因為在橋上可以避風雨,故叫它風雨橋;花橋是因為它花俏好看,上有彩繪,故稱之為花橋。

      風雨橋確實是非常有實用價值的建筑,侗鄉人勞動之余、旅行之間,喜歡在風雨橋的廊中休息閑坐。那里成了一個小型的公共場所,人們在此拉家常、談莊稼、話世界、唱大歌,甚至還在橋的閣樓上設立神龕。如此看來,風雨橋不僅是人們的日常生活的場所,也是人們精神生活的寄托空間。

      5、薩堂

      侗寨的另一種具有神圣性的建筑是薩堂,在侗族多神崇拜的信仰系統中,祖靈崇拜是其核心。侗族祖靈崇拜的偶像是一位女性--薩,亦叫“薩歲”,或稱“薩瑪”,意為“至高無上的神圣大祖母”,也叫“圣母”,是侗族古代的一位女性英雄,在侗族文化語境中她已經被高度地神化了。祭“薩”是侗族最神圣最隆重的信仰活動。

      薩堂,侗族稱為“堂薩”,“然薩”,亦叫祖母祠,就是供奉和祭祀薩歲的地方。薩堂有兩種形式:一種是用一些石塊壘成的祭壇,祭壇由無頂的圍墻圍著;另一種是完整的堂舍,形同一座山廟,有圍墻圍閉。薩堂多建在鼓樓坪邊,與鼓樓連成一體。

      薩堂內立著一把半開的傘,傘下埋兩口鐵鍋,鍋內放有一個小小的木雕塑像,以紅綠絲線為錦衣披掛著,旁邊還放有女人服飾,鐵鍋四面按“子、丑、寅、卯、辰、巳、午、未、申、酉、戌、亥”十二地支各壘一小堆石塊,表示“十二地”方位,有二十四個部將把守。每個方位下面還埋上少許碎銀,這“十二地”為全寨地域之首,故祭壇又稱“地頭”。傘下還有木凳,上面擺五個或七個茶杯,傘的兩邊栽有兩株“千年”“黃楊樹”。

      三、傳承意義

      侗族人是天生的藝術家,民間工匠的建筑才能十分高超。他們建造樓、橋和民居時不用一張圖紙,整個結構爛熟于心,僅憑簡單的竹簽為標尺,靠獨特的“墨師文”為設計標注,使用普通的木匠工具和木料就能制造出樣式各異、造型美觀的樓、橋,設計之精巧,造型之美觀,均令人嘆為觀止。樓、橋上的各種圖案及雕梁畫棟寄托了侗族人民祈望風調雨順、五谷豐登的美好愿望和美學追求,是侗族文化特性的集中體現。

      令人擔憂的是,目前由于侗族建筑工匠后繼乏人,木材來源匱乏,加之木構建筑防火能力極弱,易損毀而難再生,因此侗族木構建筑及相關技藝存在著延續的危機。只有加強搶救和保護工作,才能使絕妙的侗族木構建筑技藝世代傳承下去。

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