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  • 首頁>古建百科>古建技藝>詳情
    西藏傳統建筑之邊瑪墻 藏族人民智慧的結晶
    2018-08-29 16:35:07 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:王艷

    西藏的寺廟的外墻頂上總有一條赤紅色的,其實除了寺廟外,一些貴族的建筑,宮殿官邸中也會用到,學名‘邊瑪墻’,取名于制作這種墻體的材料——‘邊瑪草’。它一般位于墻體的外側,用木釘固定,刷深赤紅色。

    西藏傳統建筑之邊瑪墻 藏族人民智慧的結晶

    藏式建筑·邊瑪墻

      什么是邊瑪墻

      在藏區,寺院建筑中的重要殿堂,如大的“扎倉” (寺院團體單位名稱,最大的單位為“措欽”,其下是“扎倉”,再下為“康村”,最小的單位是“米村”) 以及頌經大堂女兒墻都是與白墻成鮮明對比的赭紅色墻體。由于它的材料是由藏語稱之為“邊瑪”的灌木樹枝捆扎、染色制成,所以叫邊瑪墻。

      邊瑪墻的作用

      不僅以這種自重較輕的邊瑪草為墻體減輕了上部的壓力,還具有更好的裝飾作用,特別是在邊瑪墻上鑲嵌的銅制鎏金的‘七政’,‘八寶’圖案,和邊瑪墻上口的屋檐下以短木做成一排象征日月星辰的白色圈點,既裝飾了建筑的外墻平面,又突出了西藏的宗教特色。

    西藏傳統建筑之邊瑪墻 藏族人民智慧的結晶

    邊瑪墻的構成

      邊瑪墻的傳說

      最早使用邊瑪草砌墻的是山南的桑耶寺。據說,當時的戰士無意間將弓箭射向邊瑪草叢,箭竟然插入邊瑪草叢,既沒有折斷也沒有掉落,聰明的藏族祖先便想到把邊瑪草砌在堡壘上當掩體,這樣打仗的時候敵人把弓箭射過來,箭就可以直直插進墻體里,既不會折斷也不會掉落,起到了“草船借箭”的作用。

      關于邊瑪草

      邊瑪草本身也有毒性,所以能夠抵御蟲咬等生物破壞,很多西藏建筑的邊瑪墻保存了上百年依然堅硬如初,毫無腐爛,當然這和西藏地區日照時間長,紫外線殺菌也不無關系。

    西藏傳統建筑之邊瑪墻 藏族人民智慧的結晶

    邊瑪墻建筑

      這種墻體從建筑技術角度講,它可以減輕墻體頂部的重量,對高層藏式建筑的無疑有著很好的減重作用;從建筑外觀裝飾來講,邊瑪墻對建筑起到色彩對應反差的裝飾作用,從而獲得視覺美感的效果。藏式建筑墻體色彩上白色是主流色,白色墻體上有了赭紅色的女兒墻和窗戶邊沿的黑色條,墻體顏色從單調變成了多彩,從輕淡變成了凝重,增加了整個建筑的莊重感。布達拉宮、大昭寺、以及三大寺給我們的感覺正是這樣。

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