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  • 首頁>古建百科>古建技藝>詳情
    古建筑常見損壞及修繕方法
    2018-08-21 13:15:16 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:王艷

    近年,隨著社會經濟的發展,人民對文化生活有了更高的追求,對我國的歷史文化、民族特色也越來越感興趣。遠景設計研究院古建筑修繕專家道:各地的古鎮、古村落成為了旅游、休閑的熱點,對古建筑的開發、修繕也成為建筑領域的一個重要的組成部分,以下是古建筑常見的損壞情況和修繕方法。

    古建筑常見損壞及修繕方法

    古建·塔基

      基礎

      古建筑基礎常見的損壞主要是沉降和破碎,究其原因主要是由于地基承載力變化、地下水影響、樹根生長、地下管線、外力破壞等導致,修繕時首先需查明原因并消除這些不利影響。

      基礎修繕一般采用分段掏修的辦法,每段不超過1m且不得超過基礎底面積的20%。修繕過程中必須對原結構、墻體進行支撐加固,必要時應進行計算并設計方案,確保安全施工。

      臺基

      基礎以上即為臺基,常見的損壞情況主要有階沿石松動、移位、側塘板掉落、碎裂、松動鼓出、磚制側塘板還會發生酥堿、風化等。一般來說臺基石作產生松動、移位等現象,若構件出現較大的位移、鼓出,則在勾縫前需對構件進行歸安,即重新安裝。 對于石構件出現破碎、缺失等情況,可采用與原構件紋理、材質一致或相近的石材進行添補。對于新舊之差,一般可采用整體做新或是做舊的辦法進行處理。

      地坪

      臺基內部為磚墁地(即地坪),磚墁地的損壞情況主要是破碎、剝落、高低不平等。修繕方法一般分為剔鑿修補、局部修補、整體重做、桐油養護等。地坪修繕好以后可用桐油鉆生養護,使得地坪外觀一致,強度增加。對于一些地面基本完好或是地面具有文物價值,不宜修繕的,也可僅用桐油鉆生養護。

    古建筑常見損壞及修繕方法

    黑白墻體

      墻體

      古建筑墻體根據部位、作用、建筑等級等情況分為很多種,如比較講究的干擺、絲縫,不太講究的淌白墻、糙磚墻以及簡陋的碎磚墻、混水墻、石墻。常見的問題主要是酥堿剝落、輕微破碎等情況,一般為風化、潮濕或是外力破壞導致。對于墻體的局部酥堿剝落或是破損,可先將表層剔除,露出磚塊堅硬部分,依據其深度不同可分別采用磚片或是磚塊按現場形狀裁制好鑲補墻體并粘結牢固,待干后進行勾縫,使之與整體一致。若墻體產生傾斜或是裂縫,須查明其原因并排除之,同時制定支護方案,然后根據具體情況或拆除重砌或是保持原樣、用砂漿、素水泥漿或是高分子材料進行填充密實,然后加強觀測。

      木構架

      木構架的損壞主要包括木柱柱根糟朽、柱身劈裂、折斷、檁條彎垂、腐朽、枋子彎垂缺失、木構架傾斜、拔榫等情況。究其原因主要是由于潮濕、屋面荷載較大、保護不善等導致。

      柱根糟朽的處理方法一般是柱根包鑲或者墩接。檁條、枋子發生糟朽的,若糟朽部分不超過斷面面積的1/3時可采用剔補得辦法,即將糟朽部分剔除,將接觸面刨磨光凈,然后用材質相同的木料在糟朽部位粘結牢固并用鐵釘固定。當檁枋斷面糟朽超過1/3時則已影響構件的受力性能,則必須進行更換。 當木構架各構件基本完好但整體出現傾斜、拔榫現象時,則需采取打牮撥正的辦法。零星木構件破損、缺失的如斗拱的升、斗、昂、耍頭,長短窗的仔料、屜心板、裙板、框料,掛落、飛罩等則修繕比較簡單,只需更換整修即可。

    古建筑常見損壞及修繕方法

    屋面琉璃瓦

      屋面

      屋面修繕包括兩部分,一是屋面瓦作的修繕、另外是木基層的修繕。一般來說兩者是同時進行的。

      屋面漏水,首先要做的是查找漏點。根據室內漏水的位置豎直向上找到屋面上的相對位置,找出原因后先清理瓦壟,鏟去松動的灰泥沖洗干凈,然后用麻刀灰勾抹破損處,勾抹后用短毛刷子沾水沿邊沿勒刷(俗稱打水槎子),最后用麻刷子蘸青漿刷抹并用瓦刀軋實趕光。

      7油漆、地仗

      油漆地仗常見的損壞方式有龜裂、破損、剝落等,究其原因主要是由于風吹日曬、雨打潮濕、外力破壞等。

      一般視地仗的破壞程度而定,若僅地仗表層破壞,麻灰層尚保持完整,可僅鏟除表面破壞灰層;若地仗破壞嚴重,局部裂縫見木基層,則必須將地址全部鏟除重做。

      注意事項

      以上就是古建筑常見的一些破壞情況和修繕方法,雖說技術要求不是很高,但對于古建筑的修繕一定要秉持著慎之又慎的態度進行,切忌草率、過度,稍一大意即有可能變修繕為破壞,喪失古建筑之歷史風貌、價值。

      所以在修繕之前一定要針對每個單體古建筑的原貌和破損情況進行仔細的研究分析和咨詢專家意見,并制定詳細的修繕方案,力求在修繕中保持現狀和恢復原狀。

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