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  • 首頁>古建百科>古建技藝>詳情
    木中佛 至為精美的木雕造像
    2018-08-17 16:54:25 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:王艷

    木雕佛像,或長期受人供奉、久歷煙火薰蒸,或長期收藏存放,或經自然侵蝕、氧化風化等作用,表面色彩失去光澤,水份幾乎蒸發殆盡,木質變輕、古樸滄桑;或擁有特殊木紋,或散發淡淡清香,或帶有煙火、發霉、發朽氣味,或經歲月洗禮而老化蟲蛀……,具單一性和不可復制性,在保存上比較困難。故木雕佛像的存世量并不多,流傳千年的木雕佛像更是珍貴難得。

    木中佛至為精美的木雕造像

      明彩繪木雕獅吼觀音菩薩

      高107寬73.7深33cm

      古佛雕斑剝皮殼下的原生木質,凝結著生命張力與自然精華,吐納著一股呼吸的氣息。木雕佛像,刻劃出生命的歷史軌跡,散發著鮮活的藝術活力,宣揚著宗教的信仰精神,蘊含著深刻的教理內涵,傳遞著中國的傳統文化、民族色彩與審美意識。

      木雕佛像是隨著佛教興起和中國木雕雕刻有機結合發展起來的,木雕佛像成為古代精美的藝術品和古代文化傳承。木雕到商周,已出現施漆、鑲嵌、雕花等裝飾技術,到戰國時期,盛行漆繪木雕枝術,存世有出土女俑可窺見當時水平。

      至秦漢兩代,木雕工藝趨于成熟,此時又誕生施彩木雕新沄。標志著木雕工藝已達到相當高的水平。隨著木雕技術與工藝的不斷完善與發展,和其他雕刻工藝一樣,不可疲免地應用到佛教傳播領域。

    木中佛至為精美的木雕造像

      明木雕騎孔雀阿彌陀佛

      十五世紀,高55.2cm

      南北朝重要的特點是佛教藝術隨著文化和商業的交流傳入中國,這在很大程度上促進了木雕工藝的發展,據史載,南、北朝時就有檀木佛像,南朝著名雕刻家戴逵在會稽以整棵樹雕成一尊一丈六尺高的“無量壽佛”, 這應是木雕佛像的先例。

      梁武帝大愛敬寺有檀木(佛)像一丈八尺, 陳武帝的先皇寺有與真人高度相等的檀木佛像十二軀(《魏書·群老志》)。檀木是名貴木材之一,整段材料難得,尤其大件佛像。所以在雕刻過程中,事先設計好幾部分,如頭、軀干、手足比例大小,分段雕刻,刻成拼接成整體,再行整體修正,再施以彩飾。由此形成木雕佛像的特點。

      最突出的是天監年間(502-519年)梁武帝大興佛寺,特別在江南一帶耗費巨資,廣建寺院,促進了建筑裝飾木雕從內容到形式的轉變,佛教雕刻方面有拼木雕刻、獨木雕刻,規模極大,已注重精雕細刻。河北承德普寧寺大乘之閣中的一尊木雕觀音,被稱為世界最大的木雕像,佛像高22.28米、腰圍15米、重110噸、有42只手印、45只慧眼。

      唐代是中國工藝技術大放光彩的時期,木雕工藝也趨于完美。許多保存至今的木雕佛像,是中國古代藝術品中的杰作,具有造型凝練、刀法熟練流暢、線條清晰明快的工藝特點,邁年來,一直被稱為海內外藝術市場上的“寵兒”。

      木雕佛像,今天能看到唐宋木雕的風采。除了海內外博物館藏(展)品外,還有保存得較好的-些古廟,如云南劍川縣白族木雕關岳廟,十分精美,自成風格。北宋真宗時有嚴姓雕刻家,用檀香木雕刻佛龕,及五百羅漢,受到真宗褒獎。唐代木雕佛像體量碩大,如上海博物館珍藏的唐代迦葉菩薩頭像,刻劃得大氣磅礴,慈祥寬厚,高鼻深目,寬額長眉,是唐代木雕珍品。入唐后的佛像雕刻,除了藝術風格大有變異外,材質的選用亦愈益豐富,大型木雕佛像的出現,就是最好的證明。

      隨著木雕技術與工藝的不斷完善與發展,在唐宋,木雕已是發展水平很高的時期。木雕工藝與建筑緊密結合,不僅出現在殿堂樓閣,廟宇民居,而且還走向日常用品。工藝技術十分完善。

    木中佛至為精美的木雕造像

      清康熙宮廷木雕髹金漆準提觀音

      佛高78cm

      菩薩曲線流暢,寬肩平腰,身形壯碩穩重。木胎扎實,通體漆金,充滿宗教信息,為清代康熙時期宮廷木雕造像中難得一見的精品。

      隋唐時代,政治相對穩定、經濟繁榮、國力上升,是文化和藝術的鼎盛黃金時代。當權者大肆修建宮殿和寺廟,在題材上擴大了佛教藝術的內容在宗教題材中,更滲透了現實的氣息,藝術上趨向真實感,唐代佛教木雕中,力士形象塑造精湛洗煉,表現的剛柔相濟,肌肉夸張得體。與這時的建筑裝飾木雕華麗渾雄,雍容典雅交相輝映,顯示了盛唐時期繁榮昌盛景象。

      唐宋兩代,木雕佛像已是發展水平很高的時期。木雕工藝與建筑緊密結合,不僅出現在殿堂樓閣,廟宇民居,而且還走向日常用品,工藝技術十分完善。

      宋代的佛像雕刻,雖然在總量和規模上略遜于唐代,但木雕佛像不失其輝煌,飽滿瑰麗的作風和洗練圓熟的手法則有過之而無不及。在題材內容和表現方式上,更有新的轉變和發展,出現了許多直接反映現實社會中生活的人物原型,富有深刻的心理和個性特征。 此時的菩薩像造型,就如同現實生活中的貴婦形象,雍容大度,裝束華貴。

      木雕技藝爐火純青是在明清,這是一個輝煌的年代

      木雕工藝使用領域大為拓展,材質范圍也不斷擴大.鄭和下西洋以后,海外紅朩傳入中土,逐慚廣為使用。建筑裝飾,家俱裝飾,文房用具,而佛教造像,也在此時更加不斷興盛起來。至近現代,雕刻佛像應用的木料材質,至少有黃楊、龍眼、黃花梨、雞刺、紫檀、沉香、檀香、果核(橄欖)等。早在明代,福建莆田地區工藝擅長圓雕佛像。宋末泉州港、楓亭港輸入菲律賓的紫檀、雞翅木等成為興化工匠的木雕原料,紅木木雕漸盛。 早在宋末的泉州港、楓亭港輸入菲律賓的紫檀、雞翅木等成為興化工匠的木雕原料,紅木木雕漸盛。

      在明清,全國木雕工藝分布地域廣闊,如浙江東陽、福建莆田、福州,木雕工藝使用材質范圍也不斷擴大,鄭和下西洋以后,海外紅朩傳入中土,逐慚廣為使用。至少還出現有白木雕、紅木雕、龍眼木雕、黃楊木雕、金漆雕等諸多木雕門類,在雕工技藝上也出現分宗立派。直至近現代,雕刻佛像應用的木料材質,至少還有黃楊、龍眼、黃花梨、雞刺、紫檀、沉香、檀香、果核(橄欖)等。

    木中佛至為精美的木雕造像

      宋~元彩繪木雕觀音坐像

      其中以浙江東陽木雕、浙江樂清的黃楊木雕、福建的龍眼木雕、廣東潮州的金漆木雕最為著名,被稱之為“中國的四大名雕”。

      此外尚有曲阜楷木雕、南京仿古木雕、蘇州紅木雕、劍川云木雕、上海白木雕、永陵樺木雕、泉州彩木雕,寧波朱金朩雕等,這些木雕都是因產地、選材或工藝特色而得名,有的歷史悠久,具有較高的工藝水平和傳統特色,能工巧匠,樹幟各地;有的雖是后起之秀,但木雕技藝十分精湛,造型日臻完美,具有獨特的地方色彩。

      從幾個主要地區看,在明代,福建莆田地區工藝就擅長圓雕佛像。現存于莆田市秀嶼嵩山陳靖姑祖廟的一尊陳靖姑像,背面鐫刻“宋真宗咸平二年(公元999年)字樣;莆田市博物館收藏的南宋媽祖神像工藝亦甚精細。明代媽祖像、匾額、圍屏、祭器等木雕工藝品至今仍在莆田、臺灣和日本長崎、鹿耳島等地天后宮保存;中國古代精美的木雕佛像,一直受到世界各國博物館和藏家的珍視。近20年來,國際拍賣市場也非常看好古代木雕佛像,如1990年11月29日,佳士得在紐約一次中國瓷器玉器、木雕藝術品拍賣會上,一座宋代木雕觀音像,以44萬美元拍出。該觀音侼高116.9厘米,面相祥和,雕工精細,保存完好。2006年9月20日,同一家拍賣公司在紐約中國瓷器工藝品專場上,一尊栩栩如生的面容莊嚴、慈祥,造型與神態都十分生動傳神,雕刻衣紋流暢、逼真的金代木雕觀音立像,以74.4萬美元(折合人民幣615.2萬元)拍出,近年,國家博物館也化重金,從國外拍購世所罕見的宋木雕菩薩。

      木雕佛像的價值,主要根據佛像朩質,佛像的年代,更重要的是木雕工藝的水準高低。其他,還有佛像體量大小、完殘程度和存世量多寡因素等。

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