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  • 首頁>古建百科>古建技藝>詳情
    古建中神奇的粘合劑——糯米灰漿
    2018-08-03 11:07:55 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:王艷

      距今大約1500年前,古代中國的建筑工人將糯米和熟石灰以及石灰巖混合,制成漿糊,然后將其填補在磚石的空隙中,制陳了超強度的“糯米灰漿”。

    古建中神奇的粘合劑——糯米灰漿

    糯米砂漿粘合墻體

      糯米砂漿是現存修復古代建筑的最好材料。糯米砂漿被認為是歷史上最偉大的技術創新之一。

      糯米灰漿的成分包括了:熟石灰、糯米漿和一些沙石。糯米灰漿可能是世界上第一種使用有機和無機原料制成的復合砂漿,比純石灰砂漿的強度更大、更具耐水性。

    古建中神奇的粘合劑——糯米灰漿

    西安南門

      為何糯米灰漿如此牢固?

      科學研究發現了一種名為支鏈淀粉的“秘密原料”,似乎是賦予糯米砂漿傳奇性強度的主要原因。支鏈淀粉是發現于稻米和其他含淀粉食物中的一種多糖物或復雜的碳水化合物。科學家表示:“分析研究表明,古代砌筑砂漿是一種特殊的有機與無機合成材料。無機成分是碳酸鈣,有機成分則是支鏈淀粉。支鏈淀粉來自于添加至砂漿中的糯米湯。此外,我們發現,砂漿中的支鏈淀粉起到了抑制劑的作用:一方面控制硫酸鈣晶體的增長,另一方面生成緊密的微觀結構,而后者應該是令這種有機與無機砂漿強度如此之大的原因。”

      科學家們在中國長城(明長城)的城墻黏合物中發現了糯米的成分,糯米灰漿被認為是長城的主要黏合材料,而這種強度很大的黏合材料也被認為是萬里長城千年不倒的原因。在中國古代,糯米砂漿一般用于建造陵墓,寶塔,城墻等大型建筑物中,其中一些建筑存在至今。有些古建筑物非常堅固,甚至現代推土機都難以推倒,還能承受強度很大的地震。

    古建中神奇的粘合劑——糯米灰漿

    登封少林寺墓塔群

      為了確定糯米能否有助于建筑物修復,研究人員準備了摻入糯米數量不同的石灰砂漿,對比傳統石灰砂漿測試了它們的性能。兩種砂漿的測試結果表明,摻入糯米湯的石灰砂漿的物理特性更穩定,機械強度更大,兼容性更強,這些特點令其成為修復古代石造建筑的合適材料。

    古建中神奇的粘合劑——糯米灰漿

    西昌老城區的建昌古城城墻修復使用糯米黏合

      時至今日,許多使用糯米灰漿的古代建筑,例如南京、西安、荊州、開封等地的古城墻,以及錢塘江明清魚鱗石塘等,雖經百千年的風雨沖刷,仍然非常堅固。事實證明,糯米灰漿是性能杰出的建筑膠凝材料。

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