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  • 首頁>古建百科>古建結構>詳情
    中國古建為何以木結構為主
    2018-09-11 15:11:48 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:王艷

    事實上,要想真正說清楚中國古代建筑為何以木結構為主這個問題并不是一件容易之事。即使從反證的方法入手,我們也會輕而易舉地推翻所謂“材料決定說”,中國多高山大川,石頭是絕不缺少的,中國的木材也不會比氣候與地理條件都更適合樹木生長的歐洲多。而“技術決定說”,也難成立。

    中國古建為何以木結構為主

    木結構示意圖

      中國人在建筑中使用石質材料的歷史并不比歐洲人晚,原始時代的巨石建筑遺存就是一個例子。漢代的石造墓穴與墓祠,以及陵墓前的石闕,至今還有遺存。漢代人已經掌握了拱券與穹隆技術并應用于墓穴建筑中,隋代建造的趙州大石橋,其跨度與造型都在世界上遙遙領先。用石頭建造城墻的歷史就更長了,以“石頭城”而聞名于世的南京城,至遲在三國時期就已經有了石頭城墻。

      中國歷史上的石造佛塔,更以技術的精美與技藝的高超而令世人矚目。其實,看一看中國建筑中雕刻精美的石制臺基、欄版、高高矗立的華表石柱、陵墓前巨大的赑屃石碑,漢白玉石橋,就知道中國人在石造與石雕技術上,并不亞于同時期的任何其他國家。顯然,說中國人因為石造技術落后的原因而采用了木構建筑的說法,也不能讓人接受。中國人既有石料來源,也有石造技術基礎,但卻并不用在為人所用的房屋上,而僅用在死者的墳墓、陵寢,或軍事設施及一些禮儀性、裝飾性的構筑物上。古代中國人對待石結構建筑的態度是,非不能也,是不為也。

      可從文化取向、建筑目的、建筑理念上來分析中國古代建筑何以形成木結構的主流中國古代建筑的主流是木結構,而歐洲古建筑的主流是石結構,兩者間的差別十分明顯。造成這種差別的原因,大約有如下幾種可能。

    中國古建為何以木結構為主

    木結構·南禪寺大殿

      其一是建筑目的方面。西方古代與中世紀的主流建筑,是為彼岸的神靈建造的。神靈或上帝是至上的存在,為神與上帝的建筑,要永恒、宏偉,具有威懾人的力量。西方人往往會花上上百年的時間,去建造一座大教堂,因為它是彼岸的,而不是現世的,建造者也就并不期待在很短的時間內建造成功。而中國古代的主流建筑是為現世的人建造的,如帝王的宮殿、苑囿,政府衙署與各種不同等級的住宅,這是中國建筑的主流部分。古人所謂“宮室之制,本以便生人”(引自《北史》),說的就是這個意思。中國也有宗教建筑,如佛寺、道觀、祠廟等。但中國人對待佛寺、道觀的態度,同對待凡人的住宅一樣,主要是為了給神佛的偶像遮風避雨,并不求建筑及雕塑的久遠,所以,越是地位顯、香火盛的寺廟,改建就越頻繁,就如同要常常給凡世的人重新翻蓋新屋一樣。因而,追求永恒與久遠的西方建筑,采用了石結構;而不求永恒與久遠,著眼現世的中國建筑,采用了木結構。

      其二是文化取向方面。西方人對石頭有著特殊的愛好。古代希臘神話中,遭遇大洪水的人類,是通過石頭再造出來的,石頭是創造人類的物質,因而,用石頭建造最重要的建筑,也是合情合理的。中世紀的學徒之人,被看作是未經雕琢的石頭,而學成有為之人,被看作是柱石之材,因此可以推測,在西方人的文化象征譜系中,石頭處于較高的層位,如西方神廟與教堂中的圣壇,都是用石頭雕琢的。中國的情況就不一樣,古代中國人講求陰陽五行。五行中的五種物質金、木、水、火、土,對應五個方位(西、東、北、南、中)。其中,土代表中央,代表負載萬物、養育萬物的大地,因此,土德就具有了很高的地位,象征中央的明清北京故宮三大殿,就是建立在一個“土”字形的三重漢白玉臺基上,代表國家的社稷壇,也是用“五色土”來象征的。五行中的木,代表的是春天,是東方,是象征生命與生長的力量。此外,五行中的金,象征西方,也象征武力與刑殺,所以,凡是與武有關的建筑,如故宮的武英殿、北京內城的宣武門,都在城市或宮殿中軸線的西側。而五行中的水,象征北方,北京故宮中軸線北端的欽安殿,是供奉水神玄武大帝的,也具有厭火的象征,此外,建筑物內部用的藻井裝飾,建筑屋脊上用的鴟吻裝飾,都具有與水相關聯的厭火性象征功能。顯然,五行中所代表的中國人最崇尚的五種材料中,只有土與木是最適合建造為人居住的房屋的,因此,中國古代建筑的基本材料,就是“土木”,人是居住在由“土”(臺基)承載,由木(柱子、梁架)環繞的空間中的。

    中國古建為何以木結構為主

    木結構建筑構造

      其三是建筑理念方面。古代羅馬建筑師,早在2000年以前,就提出了“堅固、實用、美觀”的建筑三原則。建筑首先要堅固,堅固與久遠是聯系在一起的,欲求堅固與久遠,石頭是最恰當的建筑材料。另外,西方人關注建筑的外在的美,即建筑應該給人以愉悅的感覺。因而,十分重視建筑的外部造型,但在西方文化中,對于建筑之內部空間上的品質,卻討論的不多。無論建筑多么巨大,室內多么陰沉,只要堅固耐用,只要外觀愉目,就是好的。中國人則不同,古代中國人既不求建筑堅固久遠,也不簡單地將建筑外形的美觀作為一個目標。中國人更多地追求是空間的適宜與陰陽的和合。老子所謂“萬物負陰而抱陽,沖氣以為和”,顯然,與西方人將關注的重點放在建筑實體的堅固與美觀相反,中國人更關注空間的背負與懷抱,及陰陽的和諧。古代中國人的基本空間理想,就是居處于一個負陰抱陽、陰陽和合的空間之中。也就是說,中國人的房子,不是為了看的,而是為了棲息其中的。居處的最佳境界,就是陰陽和合,這從北京明清故宮的建筑名稱上就可以看出來,如前三殿太和、中和、保和,如后三宮乾清、交泰、坤寧,如頤和園,其名稱意義都象征著陰陽和合。中國古代風水術,也是圍繞陰陽和合而做文章的。為了保證陰陽和合,建筑的規模就不能太大,建筑的高度也不需要太高。既然不需要過高,過大,則用木結構建造的單層或二層,規模適度的廳堂殿閣,就是最好的建筑選擇。同樣是為了陰陽和合,在性能上最表現陰陽適中的“土木”就是最好的建筑材料。

      中國古代建筑以其靈活便利的木框架結構充分體現了古代中國人的理性與智慧  當然,若從理論上,將這一問題闡釋的十分清楚,還需要大量考證發掘與旁征博引的功夫。但無論如何,需要強調的一點是,中西方傳統建筑各有其最可寶貴的優點。西方建筑的優越之處大家談論的比較多了,而中國建筑以其靈活便利的木框架結構,更易于創造靈活多變的空間;用可以再生,且不會造成污染的木材作為主要建筑材料,更具有環境的可持續性;建筑物的兩山與北面是厚重的墻,而面臨庭院的正面是輕盈的門窗格柵,房屋的進深十分適中,這樣的格局,既阻擋了西北風的侵襲,也接納了充足的陽光與空氣,還用坡屋頂防止了夏日的暴曬,其中充分體現了古代中國人的理性與智慧。

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