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  • 首頁>古建百科>古建結構>詳情
    不用一釘一鉚 榫卯之間顯智慧
    2018-08-06 13:44:11 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:王艷

    藏在木頭里的靈魂 榫卯之間顯智慧

    應縣木塔結構示意圖

      建筑之所以堅固,家具之所以耐用,最大的靈魂當屬結構。結構的連接方式有很多種,但是不用一釘一鉚,將兩個木質結構通過凹凸結合的方式嚴密扣合起來的家具工藝在中國卻由來已久,綿延至今,這種形體構造的巧妙組合叫做榫卯。

      古代連接兩個木件的結構方式主要通過榫卯來完成,這樣做的好處是不但看上去嚴謹穩固,而且還有奇妙的裝飾作用。

      榫卯是極為精巧的發明,這種構件連接方式,使得中國傳統的木結構成為超越了當代建筑排架、框架或者剛架的特殊柔性結構體,不但可以承受較大的荷載,而且允許產生一定的變形,在地震荷載下通過變形抵消一定的地震能量,減小結構的地震響應。

      山西應縣木塔到現在建成快上千年了,十幾次地震都沒弄垮它老人家,靠的就是塔里數以萬計的榫卯木結構。

    不用一釘一鉚 榫卯之間顯智慧

    佛光寺

      榫卯結構有著久遠的歷史,甚至早于漢字歷史。在梁思成、林徽因帶領下,徒步測繪研究中國傳統建筑的過程中,1937年6月,在五臺山發現了一座興建于唐代的佛光寺。這座現存第二古老的木結構的寺廟,其梁柱間的榫卯結構依然緊密相扣,不離不棄。

      古代人們沒有力學公式,不知道怎樣去計算彈性形變、硬度、壓力等,只能通過經驗老道的工匠們憑經驗去判斷,并且選用盡量輕、盡量硬的材料去蓋房子。然而,當時并沒有水泥砂漿,該如何把兩段不同的材料拼接在一起呢?

      把其中一段木料弄凹,另一段木料弄凸了,然后把它們天衣無縫地嫁接在一起,就可以比直接堆砌更穩。

    不用一釘一鉚 榫卯之間顯智慧

    榫卯結構

      榫卯并不是我國特有的一項技術,我國特有的是古人利用榫卯的技術制造出各種高大上的建筑。再經過各種文人雅士、達官貴人的各種吟詩作對、登高遠瞻等,讓這種原本高大上的建筑物帶上了一份濃濃的詩情畫意。當然,榫卯技術很多方式復合型的、各種形狀的、不同角度方向拼接等的N種模式、各種隱藏。把它們發揮到極致,再在外面加上中國傳統的木雕工藝,整一幅活靈活現的木刻畫就這樣站在面前了。所以,榫卯存在的最初目的,只是為了讓拼接更加穩固。以致后期各種高超技術等,它們被制作出來并不是為了嘩眾取寵,依然是以實用性為第一大原則,結實、牢固、耐用。

      榫卯結構的運用不僅僅傳統建筑中,也運用在古典家具的構造上。對于榫卯,我們熟悉卻又陌生。說熟悉,是因為我們幾乎都能說出幾種經典榫卯的名稱;說陌生,在“頂天”和“立地”這兩方面起了重要的作用。

    不用一釘一鉚 榫卯之間顯智慧

    微觀榫卯結構

      雖然現代社會節奏加快,榫卯卻用的越來越少。追其原因,一個是科技發達,可替代的材料太多了。這種原生態的工藝不太能適應社會的“速度與激情”,但是在一些相對來說城市化不太快的村落地區,這種原始工藝與現代手法的結合,從而得以繼承并再一次發展。

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