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  • 首頁>古建百科>古建結構>詳情
    中國古代建筑與抗震
    2018-08-02 10:58:39 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:王艷

      地震給人類造成最直接最普通的災害就是房屋建筑的損壞。如果按照中國古代建筑結構建筑的木制建筑,是具有一定的防震功能的。

    中國古代建筑與抗震

    中國古建筑·故宮

      中國古代建筑工匠常常巧妙地選擇合理的幾何形平面和簡單的體型,用以提高建筑物的抗震功能。現存的古代建筑物,平面和體型大多是規則的簡單的、對稱的,包括建筑物內部的配置,也盡量避免內部的風度與質量的不均勻,以防止剛度與質量中心的偏離。如單座建筑中,絕大多數殿堂和樓閣是并不太狹隘的矩形,塔、亭和部分樓閣是正方形、正六角形或正八角形,也有圓形的,只是園林建筑中才使用較為變化的平面。在規整的平面外廊中,也很注意均勻對稱。同樣單座建筑體型也并不太過于復雜,只是在屋頂形式上加以變化。而且這種簡單的平面、體型并不會給人以單調的感覺。在結構上,采取以柱子承重的木構架形式,而不是以墻承重,是中國古代建筑工匠的又一妙法。這也是中國建筑不同于世界其他各系古代建筑主要以磚石墻為承重體系的重大區別之一。同時在抗震上也十分有利,故有“墻倒柱立屋不塌”之說。

    中國古代建筑與抗震

    木結構·應縣木塔

      由于柱是整個構架的承重部分,柱子一倒,全屋皆塌,所以,古代建筑業的能工巧匠十分講究柱子間的連絡,創造了許多巧妙方法,以確保建筑物的整體性。其方法是,內外槽各圈立柱的柱頭上皆有額枋聯系,額枋搭在柱頭上并與柱構連。這就使各孤立的柱子能夠連成柱網站立在地基上。有時還在柱根與柱根之間使用地栿聯接,這對抗震更有好處。因此被稱作“抗震箍”。至于內外柱之間,由于梁架的使用,使內外各行縱柱之間已經由柱網上部的梁架聯成為一個個橫向整體,其聯系又大大加強了。

    中國古代建筑與抗震

    古建筑·榫結構

      明代以后,又出現了直接穿插在內外柱之間的構件(稱穿插枋),更加強了內外柱的聯系,而作為另一種橫向構架的穿斗架,在橫向各柱之間,都用穿枋聯接,其整體性比梁架更為優良,抗震性能更好。房屋的轉角處,最易破壞,古代工匠常以角柱與額枋和梁架聯系,由于各構件之間有周密巧妙的聯系,使整個構架形成一個有機構成的穩固整體,確實增強了房屋的抗震性能。

      同時,木構架的用材具有柔性,有一定的變形的能力,構架的全部節點又皆使用木榫,不是剛接,這就保證了建筑物的剛度協調,比較符合抗震要求,使整個房屋的地震荷載大為降低,起到了抗震的作用。由此可見,我國古代建筑中許多巧妙的建筑方法,有其科學性,即使現在現代,仍有吸取應用的可能和需要。

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