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  • 首頁>古建百科>古建風水>詳情
    古建設計師不懂風水就等于不懂古建
    2018-09-04 13:17:26 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:王艷

    中國歷史上佛教是屬于外來宗教,漢代時傳入中國。由于佛教教義精辟生動、平易親和、對現實有很強的互補性,于是得到廣大下層社會的認同和上層統治階級的推崇,逐漸發展成為中國歷史上流傳最廣、影響最大的宗教。

     

    古建設計師不懂風水就等于不懂古建

    大雄寶殿

      佛教起源于印度,公元前五世紀,由古印度釋迦牟尼所創。基本的教理有:四諦、八正道、十二因緣。修持三學:戒、定、慧,主張三藏:經、律、論。提倡因果報應、三世輪回,追求清凈出世、息心去欲,最終達到斷除煩惱成佛的目的。

      佛教雖然空靈出世,但是它的存在必然要通過物質的形態表現出來。佛像需要容身之所,僧尼需要寄居之處,佛教建筑隨著佛教的發揚光大而興盛起來,成為中國古代建筑的重要組成部分,豐富了中國原有的建筑形式,也深受中國傳統風水文化的影響。

      我國傳統建筑文化的一個極為顯著的特點是:各種建筑活動,無論是都邑、村鎮、聚落、宮宅、園圃、寺觀、陵墓,乃至道路、橋梁等,從選址、規劃、設計及營造,幾乎無不受到所謂風水理論的深刻影響。

      “風水”二字始見于托名為晉代郭璞(公元276年~324年)所著的《葬書》(也稱《葬經》):“葬者,乘生氣也。經曰:氣乘風則散,界水則止,古人聚之使不散,行之使有止,故謂之風水。”這里所說的風水指的是關于陰宅的葬法原理。

      中國的風水術是中華建筑文化的獨特表現,它源遠流長,是古代樸素的環境學、生態學、心理學的綜合體,并兼有審美的藝術。西方學者曾說中國風水術是使生者與死者所處之所與宇宙氣息中的地氣取得和合的藝術。

      在國內一直是把風水稱作是一種尋“生氣”的藝術。何謂“生氣”,風水家對此有進一步解釋:“經著春風吹拂后的花木,自不期而然的有欣欣向榮之概”——這便是所謂“生氣”。

      那么“生氣”的定義,就可以這樣理解:凡宇宙間的大自然的現象,新興而茁壯,生機勃勃與蕭殺相對的叫做“生氣”。風水的所有理論基本上都圍繞“氣”展開。

      說到“氣”便離不開形,形即形狀,地形地貌,環境狀況。形與勢凝聚了氣,形為氣之所依,氣為形滯,形為氣之表,氣為形之體,因而古代風水又有形勢宗和理氣宗兩大理論派別。

      兩派各有偏重,但最終目的是一致的:使人與自然相和合,人適應自然,自然為人所用,順其自然之情理,以達到“天人合一”的崇高境界。

      天下名山僧占多,歷來佛寺大都建造在山清水秀、風水極佳的地方。這些地方大多“環若列屏,林泉清碧”,“宅幽而勢阻,地廊而形藏”。這種追求固然與佛教所追求的靜修教義及佛教徒的生存需要有關,但也離不開風水潛移默化的觀念上的影響。

      佛教經常借助風水確定寺址,覓龍、察砂、觀水、點穴、四靈獸等相地方法一如世俗建筑。幾乎每一佛寺志中都有關于其寺后倚之山的“風水式“的詳盡描寫。

      但是佛教建筑也有不同于世俗建筑的地方,尤其是風水的有關陰宅、陽宅的理論。風水理論中活人住的叫陽宅,如住宅、宮殿,死人住的叫陰宅,如陵墓、祠堂。

      佛寺前殿部分(山門-天王殿-大雄寶殿)祭祀性強,按照中國傳統理念認為是虛空的、精神的,陰氣重,實際屬于陰宅性質,場氣為陰。

      大雄寶殿前的標準布置格局是小佛塔或經幢,原是藏佛祖之骨的,因而正殿大雄寶殿之前的建筑群場氣屬陰,可以陰宅論。

      而后院的藏經殿及僧房、灶房、庫房,由于是生活場所,則屬陽宅。因此整體論寺院,是陰陽合二為一的中性偏陰的場氣之所。

      佛寺在選址上還有一個與世俗建筑截然不同的特點:不避形煞,如峭壁、怪石、山頂端等,均是民居所避居之處,而佛寺卻敢于選建在這些形煞之地,如山西渾源恒山的懸空寺危立于峭壁之上,形成奇觀,也反映了寺廟建筑選址的特殊性。

      在風水學上,寺廟本身就是鎮物,認為可以鎮煞,這是非常有別于民居的。寺廟選址或優選風水寶地,或選形煞之地加以化煞,將特煞轉化為特吉。

      風水學基于易理,認為事物沒有絕對的優勢。世上沒有解決不了的“絕地”,優劣勢都是可以轉化的。物極則反,而轉化后,則極劣之地可以轉化為極優,這是有異于世俗民居的。

    古建設計師不懂風水就等于不懂古建

    孔廟大成殿

      朝向

      中國地處北半球中緯度和低緯度地區,由這種地理自然環境所決定,房屋朝南可以冬季背風招陽,夏季逆風納涼,所以中國的房屋基本以南向為主。

      方位的偏正與否,在古代是十分重要的大事。歷代堪輿家對建筑方位更是重視,《管氏地理指蒙》說:“卜兆乘黃鐘之始,營室正陰陽之方,于以分輕重之權······生者南向,死者北首。”又說:“卜兆營室二事,一論山,一論向,為堪輿家第一關鍵。“他們認為建筑的方向應和宇宙陰陽之氣相協和。

      中國傳統建筑的方位是非常講究而細膩的,天子當陽而立,向明而治。”所以宮殿等皇家主要建筑和州府縣官署衙門一般取正南向,地位較尊高的神祇、德行修養很高的圣人或神人所居的殿堂也可取四正方向。

      如佛教中的大雄寶殿,道觀中的三清殿、玉皇殿,孔廟學宮中的大成殿等常以東南西北四正向作為朝向(大成殿常取南向),即子午卯酉向。

      普通老百姓的民居不得朝向四正方向,而是多取以二十四分位羅盤定向的除四正方向外的其它方向,并且常用兩分位之間的方向作為房屋的朝向,即以“縫針”定向。否則認為煞氣太重,心理難以承受。

      佛教建筑中除了大雄寶殿之類等級高的建筑外,供奉其他如四大天王、彌勒佛等的次要殿堂建筑朝向概不可坐正向。

    古建設計師不懂風水就等于不懂古建

    佛教建筑·懸空寺

      布局

      風水上認為建筑布置主殿要高大,配殿要低小,否則稱為欺主,而寺院布置上一切寺觀庵宇以大殿為主,大殿要高,前后左右要低的做法有意無意地暗合了風水的要求。

      明代之后寺院佛殿的地位日趨突出,與風水提倡佛殿為主,要體量高大的說法不無關系。另外風水還對寺院的開門之法有所規定:“亦依《八宅周書》例,然佛門坎艮震巽離坤兌七山可開正門,惟乾山一局,辰、巽、巳三向不可開正門,或從青龍首乙位出入,或從白虎首巳上開門,謂之福德門,最吉。”

      風水觀念中,為了保證“氣”的通暢,“門向”與“氣口”關系密切,即門向總是要朝向“氣口”。所謂“氣口”指的是寺院前方群山的開口處或低凹處,風水學上認為正是此處為一座寺院的希望。

      為了追求這個希望,最方便而最常用的方法便是通過門向的偏轉使門與這一開口處相對。如安徽九華山古拜經臺寺,背倚天臺峰,左鷹峰,右金龜峰,前對觀音峰,四面環山,只在觀音峰與金龜峰之間有一狹窄的谷口,因地勢所制,該寺的平面狹長并且朝向無法正對此谷口,于是依照“風水”說法將寺門偏斜朝向這一谷口。這也說明了風水對佛教的強烈沖擊與滲透。

      盡管佛教教義,本不重視易理風水,認為一切外在條件,皆取決于修煉者的內心。佛教一句名言:“世上本無穴,穴在我心中。”但佛教圣徒們卻仍然為寺廟風水的好壞大費心力,作為回報風水也為佛教營造出美好感人的景觀和居住環境。

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