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  • 首頁>古建百科>古建風水>詳情
    明十三陵|古代建筑風水實例
    2018-08-07 17:47:03 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:王艷

    要說古代建筑風水,那就一定要去北京看看,北京作為中國的首都,作為歷代朝代的“駐點”自然會有很多的風水上的講究,明代十三陵就是其中的一個例子,明十三陵是明朝皇帝的陵寢,如今也是世界文化遺產之一。

    古代建筑風水實例——明十三陵

    明十三陵

      盡管風水的內容越來越復雜,其中不乏荒誕無稽的說教和蠱惑人心的騙局,但在它的合理思想指導下,在中國歷史上確曾出現過許多優秀的建筑作品。北京昌平明十三陵就是其中的典范。

      十三陵始建于永樂七年(1409年)。為了求得吉祥的墓地,明成祖命江西風水師在昌平境內找到了這一片山地,經朱棣親自踏勘確認后并封為“天壽山”。以后的十二代明朝皇帝也相繼把陵墓建造在這里,在具體確定他們的墓址時,都有風水師參與其間。

    古代建筑風水實例——明十三陵

    明十三陵依山而筑

      明十三陵坐落于天壽山麓。總面積一百二十余平方公里。距離北京約五十公里。十三陵地處東、西、北三面環山的小盆地之中,陵區周圍群山環抱,中部為平原,陵前有小河曲折蜿蜒,山明水秀,景色宜人。這里自永樂七年(1409)五月始作長陵,到明朝最后一帝崇禎葬入思陵止,其間230多年,先后修建了十三座皇帝陵墓、七座妃子墓、一座太監墓。共埋葬了十三位皇帝、二十三位皇后、二位太子、三十余名妃嬪、一位太監。

      十三座皇陵均依山而筑,分別建在東、西、北三面的山麓上,形成了體系完整、規模宏大、氣勢磅礴的陵寢建筑群。明代術士認為,這里是“風水”勝境,絕佳“吉壤”。因此被明朝選為營建皇陵的“萬年壽域”。該陵園建于1409~1644年,距今已有300~500多年歷史。陵區占地面積達40平方公里,是中國乃至世界現存規模最大、帝后陵寢最多的一處皇陵建筑群。

    古代建筑風水實例——明十三陵

    明十三陵石雕

      十三陵所處的地形是北、東、西三面環山,南面開敞,山間眾溪匯于陵前河道后,向東南奔瀉而去。陵前6公里處神道兩側有兩座小山,東為“龍山”,西為“虎山”,符合東青龍、西白虎的四靈方位格局,用風水理論來衡量,天壽山山勢延綿,“龍脈”旺盛,陵墓南面而立,背后主峰聳峙,左右“護砂(山)”環抱,向南遠處一直伸展至北京小平原,前景開闊。陵墓的“明堂”(基址)平坦寬廣,山上草木豐茂,地脈富有“生氣”,無疑是一處天造地設的帝陵吉壤。人們由大紅門一路向內,可以領略到各陵建筑和雄偉山勢和諧統一結合在一起所產生的感人效果。

      十三陵是一個天然具有規格的山區,其山屬太行余脈,西通居庸,北通黃花鎮,南向昌平州,不僅是陵寢之屏障,實乃京師之北屏。明末清初著名學者顧炎武曾寫詩描述這里的優勝形勢:“群山自南來,勢,若蛟龍翔;東趾踞盧龍,西脊馳太行;后尻坐黃花(指黃花鎮),前面臨神京;中有萬年宅,名曰康家莊;可容百萬人,豁然開明堂。”這一優美的自然景觀被封建統治者視為風水寶地。在中國傳統風水學說的指導下,十三陵從選址到規劃設計,都十分注重陵寢建筑與大自然山川、水流和植被的和諧統一,追求形同“天造地設”的完美境界,用以體現“天人合一”的哲學觀點。

    古代建筑風水實例——明十三陵

    明十三陵建筑

      明十三陵,既是一個統一的整體,各陵又自成一個獨立的單位,陵墓規格大同小異。每座陵墓分別建于一座山前。陵與陵之間少至半公里,多至八公里。除思陵偏在西南一隅外,其余均成扇面形分列于長陵左右;英國城市規劃家愛德蒙培根也高度評價了明十三陵的藝術成就,他指出:依山而建的陵墓建筑群的布局“它們的氣勢是多么壯麗,整個山谷之內的體積都利用來作為紀念死去的君王。”他們形象生動地描繪了明陵建筑與自然景觀的有機結合。

      明十三陵無疑是建筑風水中的經典之作。所利用的風水學知識也是一時半會我們理解不了的,但是也不妨礙我們對它的贊嘆。

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