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  • 首頁>古建百科>古建風水>詳情
    風水融徽州 耕讀傳萬家
    2018-03-26 14:31:55 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:劉海旺

      徽州人心中深埋著對風水的畏懼與敬仰,徽州大勢西高東低,河水多自西北流向東南,迎合了風水學說上的山川大勢,生發了徽州人對風水的狂熱追求,各種類型的風水村落在徽州橫空出世。琳瑯滿目的古村落,是否藏有徽州特有的風水基因密碼呢?

    徽州

    徽州

      據說,整個徽州的地形形似一艘大船,朝向大海,船頭是海拔1787米的天目山主峰清涼峰。徽州山水的褶皺間泊著無數的船形村,村落中又隱藏著一幢幢造型逼真的船形屋,徽州人對船有著天生的執愛,除了徽駱駝、徽州牛之外,船仿佛成了徽州隱性的象征。然而,在之后的探尋中,卻發現徽州的村落布局不僅僅是簡單的“船”,“船”只是徽州風水形制中的冰山一角。

      朱熹筆下“呈坎雙賢里,江南第一村”的呈坎村,按易經中陰(坎)陽(呈)二氣統一、天人合一的八卦理論選址布局。整個構造山重水復,村落完全處在“枕山、環水、面屏”的理想空間模式環境里。村落坐西向東,大門一律朝東,迎春陽之和,避肅殺之氣,呈現出了以風水建立起的門戶秩序。村左建家廟宗祠,村右建社屋,突出左宗右社。一座座建筑被兩水圳、三街、九十九巷分割成一個個獨立而連接的空間,置身其中如入八卦迷陣。

    徽州

    徽派民居

      石家村石氏宗族是北宋開國功臣石守信的后裔,三條經線、五條緯線將村落分割得井井有條,道道相通,一棟棟民居如棋子散落其間,因此得名“棋盤村”。這是一盤沒有下完的棋,棋盤上似乎還彌漫著騰騰殺氣,下棋者早已拂袖而去。讓人猜測下棋者是誰?為何留下一盤殘局?

      里方村錢氏族人遵風水理念,經數百年努力,營構了一個外圓里方的“錢形村”,還干脆取銅錢的寓意將村子名為“里方”。他們將姓氏的錢與現實中的錢穿插在一起,時刻提醒后人“君子愛財,取之有道”,以村落格局教化后人做人要外圓里方。

    徽州

    徽州宏村

      宏村按照一頭牛的形狀對村落進行了設計,牛角,牛頭,牛舌,牛身,牛胃,牛腸,牛腳,一應俱全。從高處往下俯視,看到一頭斜臥在雷崗前的青牛,碧水流淌,水氣活絡,仿佛只要一聲吆喝,這頭筋骨舒展的青牛,便會緩緩地邁開步伐。

      龍形江村、鳳凰形雄村、魚形漁梁村……各種形狀的風水村落層出不窮,它們或者隱藏在人們的眼皮底下,或者堂而皇之地袒露天機,數量之多超出想象。僅在休寧一縣,就有月形、鳳形、鶴形、龜形等三十多個象形風水村落。

    徽州

    徽州山水

      由此來看,潛意識中,徽州人深埋著對風水的畏懼和敬仰,大到村落規劃,小到一門一窗朝向,擇偶看八字,出門翻黃歷,建房、搬遷、修墳都要挑吉曰、選吉時,徽州無處不隱藏著風水。風水禁忌頗多,一不小心就有觸禁的危險,促使徽州人不得不掌握風水知識,幾乎到了人人知風水的地步。

      風水設計的美好愿景,讓徽州人信心倍增,他們對擁有上天的眷顧和祖先的庇佑深信不疑。通過風水對精神的支持,通過學子自身的刻苦攻讀,千年來,徽州“儒風獨盛甲東南”,誕生了29個文武狀元、2100多個文武進士和數千舉人,積淀了深厚的人文底蘊。

    徽州

    徽州夜景

      “連科三殿撰,十里四翰林,同胞翰林,父子尚書,兄弟丞相,四世一品”被傳為佳話。在這樣經久不息的良性循環中,徽州成為中國教育最發達的地區之一,為古典中國提供了耕讀傳家的范本。

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