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  • 首頁>古建風采>宗教文化>詳情
    “海上絲綢之路”與沿海四大清真古寺
    2018-09-12 15:10:37 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:王艷

    在我國伊斯蘭教歷史上,廣州懷圣寺、揚州仙鶴寺、杭州鳳凰寺和泉州圣友寺被稱為沿海四大清真古寺。西北地區是我國各族穆斯林主要聚居的地方,為什么在東南沿海地區卻有這樣四座清真古寺,而且它們的建筑形制與中國傳統建筑有所區別,這還得從“海上絲綢之路”與我國伊斯蘭教的形成發展說起。

    “海上絲綢之路”與沿海四大清真古寺

    廣州懷圣寺

      自漢朝以來,我國在海上開始與周邊國家有了貿易往來,隋唐時期在這條貿易之路上運輸了大量絲綢,故有了“海上絲綢之路”的出現。也正是在此時,伊斯蘭教在阿拉伯半島興起,大量阿拉伯、波斯商人來到泉州和廣州等地,他們中的許多人常年在這里經商,有的還在這里娶妻生子,因此形成了一個個阿拉伯、波斯商人“社區”,史書上稱之為“蕃坊”。伊斯蘭教就是從這個時候開始在我國傳播,并逐漸形成了沿海四大清真古寺。

      一、廣州懷圣寺

      廣州懷圣寺又稱光塔寺或懷圣光塔寺,俗稱獅子寺。相傳為伊斯蘭教傳入我國最早建立的清真寺。關于此寺的最早記載是九世紀中葉阿拉伯旅行家蘇萊曼的《東游記》,以后在宋、元、明、清歷代皆不乏記載。

      《東游記》成書于公元851年,蘇萊曼記載了當時唐朝我國沿海城市廣州等地伊斯蘭教的情形:“中國商阜為阿拉伯商人麋集者曰廣府,其處有回牧教師一人,教堂一所……各地回教商賈即多聚廣府,中國皇帝因任令回教判官一人,依回教風俗,治理回民。”

      懷圣寺采用中國傳統的對稱布局,由大門、二門、望月樓、回廊、月臺、大殿、水房、碑亭、光塔等組成。庭院正面是大殿,面闊五間,進深五間。殿身僅三間,四面繞以回廊,用綠琉璃瓦甍面,帶斗拱。今西側改設禮拜墻,回廊遂成三面。大殿梁下題字:“唐貞觀元年歲次丁亥鼎建,民國廿四年歲次乙亥三月廿一日年末第三次重建。”

      寺內光塔樣式獨特,為國內僅有,古書中也多有描述。如宋代方信儒在《南海百詠》一書中賦詩該塔:“半天飄渺認飛翚,一柱輪囷幾十圍;絕頂五更鈴共語,金雞風轉片帆歸。”懷圣塔圓形塔身,通體白色,筆尖形的塔尖顯示了阿拉伯特有的建筑風格。在每次禮拜前,有人登上塔頂高喊“邦克”,招呼伊斯蘭教徒來做禮拜。

      關于懷圣寺名字的由來,以元至正十年(1350)郭嘉撰寫的《重建懷圣寺碑》中“寺曰懷圣,西教之宗”最早。歷代又均稱“懷圣光塔寺”,蓋起因于其兩大特征,其一寺內有一座標志性的光塔;其二清真寺建于唐貞觀年間,幾乎與穆圣歸真的632年同時,“懷圣”表達了中國穆斯林質樸的情感。

    “海上絲綢之路”與沿海四大清真古寺

    揚州仙鶴寺

      二、揚州仙鶴寺

      揚州仙鶴寺建于宋朝,據《揚州府志》寺觀條載:“禮拜寺在府東太平橋北。宋德祐間西域僧補好丁建。”德祐是南宋末恭帝趙顯年號,補好丁今譯作普哈丁。在四大古寺中仙鶴寺應該說是中國化程度最高的一座。其建筑形式完全采用中國建筑的磚木結構,平面布局則是根據清真寺的需要,呈規則地自由布局。據說在興建此清真寺時,是按照仙鶴的形體從“嘴”到“尾”布局,仙鶴寺也因此而得名。

      仙鶴寺中大殿是主體建筑,由軒廊、前殿、后殿組成,自成院落。后殿明間的西墻上設置向內的米哈拉布。為顯示其特殊地位,在屋頂上另起單檐歇山頂。殿前為一狹長的前院,三面垣墻,于東墻中央部位設二門樓,門外為甬道南轉出洞門,至中部門院。大殿山墻旁設短廊,建明月亭,即一般清真寺內望月亭。正面偏南處建小講堂,院內大銀杏一株。整個寺院顯得幽雅清凈,超凡脫俗,與仙鶴寺之名相稱。

      仙鶴寺雖說建于南宋德祐年間,但真正的宋代遺物,唯中庭銀杏尚可為證。大殿前庭的兩株古柏,栽種于元朝至元年間,亦頗可觀。加之經歷了明清兩朝重修,因此如今仙鶴寺獨特地保留了宋、元、明、清四代伊斯蘭教文化遺跡。

    “海上絲綢之路”與沿海四大清真古寺

    泉州圣友寺

      三、泉州圣友寺

      泉州圣友寺,這是近幾年發掘后的新譯名,直譯是艾蘇哈卜清真寺,曾稱清凈寺,俗稱麒麟寺。圣友寺始建于宋朝,如今所見僅為遺跡而已。真正與建筑相關的是大門甬道內北墻上鑲嵌的兩塊阿拉伯文石刻。據《泉州伊斯蘭教石刻》記載,圣友寺是泉州第一座禮拜寺,建于1009-1010年間。1300年,艾哈瑪德·本·穆罕默德·賈德斯開始加修穹頂、加闊甬道、重修寺門、翻新窗戶,并于十年后竣工。

      與廣州懷圣寺不同,圣友寺現在所存的建筑布局,沒有明確的中心軸線,清真寺保留了阿拉伯地區簡單樸素的布局形式。大殿為矩形平面,接近于正方形,內部分成大小不等的五間,進深四間,全部石砌,四周用厚石墻承重。東墻于明間和南次間處開門洞,不對中,向北偏移。北墻僅設一小門,與北側明善堂相接,南側沿街開八窗,而且較大,窗洞面積占截面的64%,這或許是為了應對泉州濕熱氣候的需要。

      寺中大門樓也全用石砌,下部為花崗巖,上部為輝綠巖,這應該說是小型簡化的中亞式伊斯蘭建筑。門墻正中開設桃尖形石拱門,兩側設厚墻與門墩,砌出龕券以為裝飾,后墻則為第二道門洞的開始;平面呈橫長方形,頂子則是桃尖形的半穹隆,與墻體的圓方過渡部分用抹角梁,并用八條支肋,分成八瓣,省去了復雜的鐘乳飾,如同伊朗稱“伊萬”的門殿。

      圣友寺的基本構成比較接近阿拉伯半島的伊斯蘭建筑方式,但是其中又夾雜了與福建本地相適應的建筑元素,因此它成為“海上絲綢之路”沿線非常珍貴的國際文化交流的例證。

    “海上絲綢之路”與沿海四大清真古寺

    杭州鳳凰寺

      四、杭州鳳凰寺

      明代田汝成輯撰的《西湖游覽志》第十八卷中寫道:“真教寺,在文錦坊南。元延祐間,回回大師阿老丁所建。先是宋室徙蹕,西域夷人,安插中原者,多從駕而南。元時內附者,又往往編管江、浙、閩、廣之間,而杭州尤伙,號色目種。隆準深眸,不啖豕肉,婚姻喪葬,不與中國相通。誦經持齋,歸于清凈。推其酋長統之,號曰滿剌。經皆番書,面壁膜拜,不立佛像,第以法號祝贊神祗而已。寺基高五六尺,扁鋦森固,罕得闌入者,俗稱禮拜寺。”這一段文字記載了明朝人對伊斯蘭教的基本認識,也說明了杭州的清真寺至少是元朝舊物。

      鳳凰寺位于現在杭州市區舊城內,舊有五層塔樓式大門,現為臨街店鋪,中央設大門,為普通二層民房,門上題額“鳳凰寺”。入門為1953年新改建大殿五間,正面設單扇屏風式門廳,向前略突出,中間開一高大的火炎形拱門券,其內設門,兩側各開拱形大窗二孔。

      窯殿共三間,居中一間較大,正方形平面,西側設開闊的拱券形門洞一座,并以連接體與大殿相連。兩側開較小之門洞,各兩券,四內角于高處始有菱角牙磚砌出墻角,其上再砌一層皮條磚,如此重復疊砌十三層,而每層均砌成圓弧形,至第十四層即可交圈構成一個完整的大圓圈式基座。

      為避免單薄感,每砌一層菱角牙磚及皮條磚,其上即砌半球形穹隆頂。利用菱角牙磚尺寸小、易轉動,最下層只一塊, 砌在墻內角,出一挑,第二層用兩塊,略有彎折,再出一挑,如此隨著高度的增加菱角牙磚塊數也增加,彎曲度也增加,用迭澀環折的方法,巧妙成功地解決了天圓地方方圓結合的問題,這是磚石結構上的新成就。

      鳳凰寺的內部裝飾十分考究,比如保存在中央明間西壁上的凹壁,上面刻滿了經文和對真主的贊詞,又稱經版,也稱天經一函,飾以纏枝花紋,朱漆貼金,是明景泰二年(1451)重修之物,是少見的木刻珍品。前殿內懸“天方古教”“認主獨一”“普今獨后”等歷代匾額,凸顯了鳳凰寺的歷史地位。

      今天,沿海四大清真古寺已經成為最好的考古佐證,為我們研究“海上絲綢之路”與中國伊斯蘭教的關系提供了可靠的線索。它們也見證著中國和伊斯蘭國家友好交往的歷史,成為中國伊斯蘭文化形成和發展史上的里程碑。

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