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  • 首頁>古建風采>宗教文化>詳情
    鳳凰寺|古韻新姿越千年
    2018-08-27 16:04:19 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:王艷

    一座建筑,因為有文化的孕育而高貴。我想這個道理是余秋雨先生教給我的。中國著名的寺廟不少,但說起清真古寺,恐怕知者不多。

    鳳凰寺

    鳳凰寺

      在杭州這片人杰地靈的土地上,不僅有秀麗山水、怡人景致,更有許多蜚聲中外、傳承文化的歷史古跡。今天就要給您介紹一座杭州的清真古寺——鳳凰寺。

      杭州鳳凰寺,在今中山中路羊壩頭,是中國創建較早的清真寺。它與廣州獅子寺、泉州麒麟寺、揚州仙鶴寺同被譽為我國東南沿海四大清真古寺,是隨著海上絲綢之路的開辟與拓展而興建起來的。

      千年古寺飽滄桑

      距今已有1000余年歷史的鳳凰寺,曾名禮拜寺、真教寺,始建于唐代,毀于宋末,重建于元,后經明、清各代整修擴建。2009年重建“望月樓”,使古老的鳳凰寺以嶄新的面貌完整地展現在世人面前。鳳凰寺現有占地面積3300平方米,整個建筑莊嚴古樸、氣勢宏偉。

      進門處的望月樓門廳高聳,形似鳳頭;步入大門是一條長廊,形似鳳頸;四周廣植松柏,形似鳳毛;由前殿進中殿到后殿,前后殿宇相連,形似鳳身;后墻外有長方形園地一塊,種有鳳尾竹,細竹成蔭,風動竹搖,形似鳳尾;南北講堂分設兩廂,形似鳳翼;講堂前兩口古井相對,形似鳳眼。縱觀全寺建筑布局形似一只展翅欲飛的鳳凰,所以在清光緒十八年正式命名為“鳳凰寺”。

    鳳凰寺

    鳳凰寺建筑

      中西合璧顯智慧

      寺內的禮拜大殿是僅存的元代建筑,保持了西亞早期清真寺的傳統風格,是現在鳳凰寺建筑精華所在。全殿系磚石結構,為“無梁殿”,頂作穹窿式,凹壁經板“天經一函”雕刻極為精致。

      前檐劵門和山面的壺門,孤線流暢,獨具風格。正殿攢尖頂三座,明間八角重檐,南北次間六角單檐,翼角高翹,宏偉壯麗,具有中國和阿拉伯文化交融特色。寺內現存雕刻精美的石刻、大殿讀經臺以及碑廊陳列的柱礎石等,均為宋代珍貴遺物。

      在殿外看,大殿頂上是3座攢尖頂,檐牙交錯,具有典型的中式古建筑特色。回秋娥告訴我:這種中西合璧的建筑特色,體現了杭州穆斯林先輩建筑的智慧,也反映出他們居于中土、融入中華的意識。

    鳳凰寺

    伊斯蘭教風格建筑鳳凰寺

      文物價值

      鳳凰寺大殿殿內存有以阿拉伯文書寫碑刻的阿老丁墓碑,后壁下部三間內各有伊斯蘭藝術的珍品,包括青砂石制“經香臺”、竹節望柱、束腰的刻花草及藏有木制“經函”等等特色工藝品。

      殿頂上建有三座宋代八角形的遺物攢尖頂,其中一座上頭刻有“可蘭經”文,相傳是明景泰二年留下的文物,鳳凰寺內的石刻經臺和柱礎石也經文物部門鑒定為宋代遺物,具有深厚的歷史價值。

      西湖的夜色好……這瑣碎的回憶,日后再憶起,想來也甚是溫馨,如鳳凰古寺那樣,有歲月的滄桑和歷史的馨香,讓后一個我我們,繼續唏噓或感嘆變化的無常。只道是:“人生在于回味,今時哪及昔日。”

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