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  • 首頁>古建風采>宗教文化>詳情
    內蒙古五當召 草原上的“布達拉宮”
    2018-05-29 13:18:21 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:周玲

      在內蒙古包頭市蒼松翠柏的大青山深處,坐落著一處氣勢宏偉、建筑規模盛大的召廟,即為五當召。五當召原名巴達嘎爾廟,藏語巴達嘎爾意為“白蓮花”。蒙古語五當意為“柳樹”,召為“廟宇”之意。

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    內蒙古五當召

      五當召始建于清康熙年間(公元1662年—1722),乾隆十四年(公元1749年)重修,賜漢名廣覺寺。經過康熙、乾隆、嘉慶、道光、光緒年間的多次擴建,逐步擴大始具今日規模。因召廟建在五當溝的一座叫做敖包山的山坡上,所以通稱其名五當召。五當召依地勢面南而建。有大小殿宇、經堂、僧舍2500余間,占地300多畝,分布在1.5公里長的山坡上。它是一幢層層依山壘砌的白色建筑,群山環繞,為蒼松翠柏掩映,雄渾壯觀。

    塞外明珠五當召 草原上的“布達拉宮”

    五當召蘇古沁殿

      古沁獨貢(殿),是五當召內最大的建筑物,位于寺院最前部,高三層,占地面積1500平方米,一樓前大廳是經堂,有八十根方柱上部雕刻和彩繪著各式花紋圖案,外裹云龍圖案的栽絨地毯。地上排列著數十排坐榻,上鋪藏式地毯。四壁滿繪釋迦牟尼佛傳故事和各種護法神像。頂部掛著各色幡幔,殿內莊嚴肅穆、富麗堂皇。

      全殿可容納千余人在這里誦經。凡屬全召性的集會都在此舉行。下邊地毯木榻是誦經的座席。后廳為藏經閣,供奉著各種佛像、唐卡、曼陀羅壇城,二樓回廊處繪有“九大佛寺建筑”鳥瞰壁畫極為珍貴。

    undefined

    宗教建筑

      卻依拉殿位于蘇古沁殿西側,始建于道光十五年(1835年),此殿為專門研究佛教哲學學部,是本召僧人最多的學部。殿內供奉著五當召最大的銅制彌勒佛,高達十米,為黃銅分鑄焊接制成。彌勒頭戴五葉寶冠,裝飾華麗,端坐于須彌寶座上,手作說法印。木雕、彩繪的背光雕刻著卷草、火焰紋飾、頗為精美。形象端莊嚴肅,造型敦厚慈祥,彌勒佛是藏傳佛教未來佛,藏語稱“強巴”、蒙古語稱“麥達里”。前邊供奉著八大藥王佛、宗喀巴等銅像。

      洞闊爾獨貢是五當召最早的殿堂,建于乾隆十四年(1749年),前經堂后佛殿高三層。黃色的外墻標志著其顯貴地位。高居于全寺之中,其他建筑均以此殿為中心,乾隆皇帝于1756年賜名“廣覺寺”,用滿、漢、蒙、藏四種文字雕刻的牌匾懸掛在殿門正中門楣上。這里是學習佛教時輪數學部,講授天文、歷法、數學、占卜、推算藏歷日期。殿內前后廳繪滿壁畫、裝飾考究,殿前廣場系講經、辯經的場所,即學術升級的考場。

    塞外明珠五當召 草原上的“布達拉宮”

     五當經墻

      五當召文物分為金屬造像、非金屬造像、唐卡、法器、塔、曼陀羅、柱毯、雜項等,五當召三級以上可移動文物中,有高達十米的彌勒佛銅像,九米高的宗喀巴銅像,兩座高1.3米,直徑近2米的鎏金曼陀羅銅城,多件清代景德鎮官窯瓷器等,而金銅佛像達331尊,其中元、明時期的佛像達19尊。唐卡保存近500幅,其中有多套數十幅為一套的組畫唐卡,繪制精美,畫法細膩,這些文物使五當召文物收藏數量、品相、等級都位列于自治區文物收藏前列,有些在中國都是少有的文物精品。

    undefined

    內蒙古五當召建筑群

      耀眼的陽光和湛藍的天空,飄揚的經幡,和祈福的轉經筒,無一不向人展示著五當召的純凈。遍布寺內的那些繁雜瑣碎圖案,鋪滿了寺廟的各個角落,所有圖案的造型和配色,都是對唐卡最完整的傳承。放眼望去,處處都是紅墻,白塔,金頂,來往的游客,還有在臺階上慵懶曬太陽的人,安逸的讓人動心,美得讓人沉醉。

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