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  • 首頁>新聞發布>學術研究>詳情
    馮驥才:醉心文保 堅守文脈
    2017-08-26 16:01:47 來源:人民網  作者:葉曉楠 劉靜遠  責任編輯:周玲

    馮驥才:醉心文保 堅守文脈

    馮驥才在窯洼炮臺附近發現一塊有重要歷史信息的古碑

      周末的天津市老城博物館前熙熙攘攘,進出的人們提到馮驥才,總是會豎起大拇指,“大馮那會兒搞的保護運動,轟轟烈烈,那陣勢,誰不知道。”

      假期里,天津大學馮驥才文學藝術研究院前行人寥寥,偶爾路過的往里探探又匆匆而去。一灣池水、一座明代木結構門楣、木質斗拱飛檐、散落的幾處纖夫石、建筑外壁爬滿的綠植,現代主義風格掩映下的卻是一個微型村落。“在這樣一種氛圍中,放進去我的人文理想,特合適。”相比路人的匆匆,隔墻的院落主人無疑想在這快速的時代里慢下來,審視一些東西。

      “叮”電梯的聲音將我們的思緒拉回。一位身高超過1。9米的老者正叮嚀著秘書小儲將要出席有關非物質文化遺產傳承人評定會的事宜。這位75歲的老者是馮驥才,如今人所共知的民間文化守護者。

    馮驥才:醉心文保 堅守文脈

    馮驥才藝術研究院

      毅然跨界 立下真心

      二十余年前,情況卻并非如此。

      彼時的馮驥才正以寫作、繪畫知名,這位昔日的籃球中鋒,已成為一位知名文藝家,《神鞭》等作品讓他廣為人知,而文化遺產保護工作卻在此時不經意間闖進了他的世界。

      上世紀九十年代初,馮驥才在全國舉辦個人巡回畫展,畫展間隙他總愛到處逛逛、探訪當地有名的民間藝術。一次次民間采風中,他發現:傳統歷史文化遺存亟待保護。

      “你知道河北白溝泥塑玩具嗎?我小時候可迷那玩意兒了,在天津街頭總是可以用家里廢棄的瓶瓶罐罐和小販換金魚來養,贈品就是這個泥塑玩具,有公雞、小老虎等,雖然不貴,一兩分錢一個,但捏得都很有神采,每次拿到一個我總是會把玩好久,現在我樓下的博物館里,還有我小時候收藏的這些小玩意兒,也是有60多年歷史的老古董了。”回憶起童年的美好,馮驥才掩不住笑意,聲音輕盈,眼眸里也漾著柔和的光。然而這個擁有千年歷史的北方泥玩具之鄉,如今卻成了售賣各種現代商品的集散地,有的當地人甚至不知道這項曾經載荷無數人回憶的老工藝,馮驥才感覺有種東西擊中了他的心。

    馮驥才:醉心文保 堅守文脈

    馮驥才繪畫作品

      1994年,馮驥才邀集文化、建筑、考古、民俗、攝影界等專業人士,招募100多名“舊城文化采風”志愿者,拍攝了3萬多張照片以及影像資料,精選出2000余張照片,編成大型畫集《舊城遺韻》《小洋樓》《海河流域》。

      “這是你心愛的城市。”馮驥才贈送給城市管理者們畫冊上的寄語,是他內心的召喚。

      “我現在是急于寫我的散文,急于寫我的小說,急于畫我的畫呢?還是急于到文化的第一線去,到田野里去,到民間去?毫無疑問,我會選擇后者,那是我們文化的根、文脈的源。”

      他的新征程就這樣開始了。

    馮驥才:醉心文保 堅守文脈

    馮驥才

      備嘗甘苦 永葆癡心

      這些年,馮驥才一直在和時間賽跑,像雜技轉盤子般在各項文保工作間閃轉騰挪。

      文化遺產保護領域的專家較為稀缺,馮驥才便身體力行,“把書桌搬到田野上”,帶領專家組奔波在田間地頭。

      “那時候,我們到河北武強去搶救木版年畫,忽然發現一個村落的房頂上都是從前藏在那里的木版年畫版,我們當即策劃用最快的速度把東西搶救出來。沒想到預定的日子天氣很糟糕,在出發的時候忽然下大雨,但是又必須去,那個村子非常難走,滿地都是泥。我們的車整個陷入泥里面了,只好下來步行,當地人挺好,弄了幾雙雨鞋,別人都能穿,只有我腳太大,要穿46號的鞋,他們的鞋我根本穿不了。他們出了一個主意,拿塑料袋把腳套上,上面用繩子系上,還真管事兒,鞋沒有事了,卻摔了兩個屁股蹲兒,摔得屁股都是泥,我們就這樣進了那個村,一批非常珍貴的版子搶救出來了。”馮驥才回憶起這段經歷,笑語中有苦澀,有欣慰。

    馮驥才:醉心文保 堅守文脈

    馮驥才繪畫作品

      資金籌措也是大問題。馮驥才向我們回憶起上世紀90年代他辦畫展期間一次陽錯陰差的文物保護。那是在周莊古鎮,那天霧很大,村落半隱半實,站在橋上,看不見鳥,但能感覺到空氣中鳥兒羽毛搏擊的聲音,偶爾水嘩啦一響,船從腳底下穿過,但也不見船影。正當他看得入迷時,一抹房屋的剪影透過霧靄從河灣里探出來,與橋下的小舟相輝映,一幅絕妙的山水畫,太美了。當地人告訴他那是柳亞子辦南社的民居,屋主要將其拆掉了,原因是要在周邊蓋新房子,賣掉老房子好買木料。馮驥才返回上海賣畫籌錢,希冀買下。豈料屋主坐地起價,從兩萬到五萬再到十五萬,馮驥才一一應下。在又一次漲價后,朋友勸他不必再賣畫了,“現在這個房子已經拆不了,房主知道這個房子值錢了。” 房子沒買到,畫卻賣掉了,不過,留存住了古屋,馮驥才還是感到“很值”。

      “文人的辦法不多,反正我一急了就賣畫,也不知道這么些年,賣了多少畫,做了多少事。”馮驥才說,他手上的疙瘩也依舊清晰可見,這是那段白日忙保護、晚上忙作畫歲月的真切見證。

      可即便努力如斯,馮驥才也經歷了不少遺憾與無力。在陜甘邊界采風,馮驥才發現一位老太太會唱許多古老歌謠。迫于器材所限,馮驥才只能筆錄,約定回去申請經費購置設備后“抽出專門時間再來采訪她。”幾個月后,當馮驥才一行找到她家時,她女兒告知“她走了”,臨走前還在念叨“他們怎么還不來呀?”馮驥才痛感自己“犯了一個不可饒恕的錯誤”。

    馮驥才:醉心文保 堅守文脈

    估衣街

      負重前行,馮驥才也被深深感動著。在天津,為保護估衣街,馮驥才簽名出售《估衣街珍存》明信片,兩小時內,300套明信片被爭購一空。一對年輕人說是給奶奶買的生日禮物。一位老人讓馮驥才給他孫子簽名,馮驥才問其姓名,老人坦告“還沒出生呢、是給孫子留下他祖上生活的地方”。

      他們的辛勞并沒有白費。2003年開始,以民間文學、民間藝術和民俗為主要對象的民間文化遺產搶救工程普查工作基本“盤清了中國的家底兒”。馮驥才呼吁對中國傳統村落開展調查與認定,2012年起,國家四部局組織開展了傳統村落調查推薦工作,5年間也收錄了4153個特色村落。《中國口頭文學遺產數據庫總目》《中國傳統村落立檔調查》《中國唐卡文化檔案·昌都卷》等傳統文化遺產保護工程業已面世……

      一路奉獻、一路心酸、一路感動,癡心不改的馮驥才和團隊的堅守終于綻放出了繁盛的花朵。

    馮驥才:醉心文保 堅守文脈

    馮驥才(右)在普查中發現了天津楊柳青鎮南宮莊子唯一活態的“粗活”年畫藝人王學勤(左)

      創新文保 閃亮慧心

      馮驥才很清楚自己面對著的是怎樣一項事業,體量巨大且千頭萬緒,個人的努力不啻于精衛填海,但他也沒有亂了方寸。關于文保如何做,他有自己的一套“組合拳”。

      他利用自己的社會職務和影響力積極發聲。馮驥才曾經擔任過民進中央副主席、中國文聯副主席等職,同時他也是連續7屆的全國政協委員,1983年開始任全國政協委員并連任至今。他還是國務院參事,國家非物質文化遺產保護評定工作專家委員會主任,國家傳統村落保護和發展專家委員會主任委員。為爭取國家支持,一次他在國家有關部委一連講了兩小時,“唇焦舌燥,一身都是汗,里面衣服都濕透”,終于以充分的理由爭取到了國家社科基金委托項目。

    馮驥才:醉心文保 堅守文脈

    馮驥才參加論壇

      他的吶喊既形象又有溫度,“母親”“醫生”“搶救”等語匯常常伴隨。回憶起自己2003年在民間文化搶救工程發布會的發言,馮驥才眉間的神采又添了幾分,“我上臺第一句話說,‘我們的民間文化在撥打120’,第二天多家媒體的新聞標題都報道馮驥才說‘民間文化在撥打120’,產生了很大影響”。而“不僅要注重GDP,更要注重非物質文化遺產這個DNA”“我要知道我關心的文化生命心率多少、血壓多少”等說法也都不脛而走。

      他分清輕重主次,善立典型。他敏銳地洞察到傳統村落在文化遺存保護中的重要作用。在他看來古村落是“最大的物質和非物質文化遺產結合產物”,是“中華文化的箱底兒”,負載了大部分的民間文化,必須優先保護。他選取“掉進時光隧道”的晉中后溝村,堅持“建檔基礎上修舊如舊”的原則,重視民間文化體系保護,在保護中謀發展,后溝村重現“人間桃花源”神韻,人均年收入如今越過萬元大關,探索出了文物保護的新路徑。他有宏闊的視野,關注國際交流。他深諳“民族的便是世界的”道理,積極推動民間文化走出去,傳揚中國重和諧、對話、交流的文化特質。“我們7月份在意大利舉辦了中國木版年畫巡展,借助與當地學者的互動,又在當地搜集了大量中國木版年畫的收藏信息,收獲頗豐。”

    馮驥才:醉心文保 堅守文脈

    馮驥才作品《神鞭》

      20余年文保領域的耕耘,馮驥才看到了許多可喜的變化。然而,問題依然有待解決,一些地方對文化遺產與傳統村落的保護與利用忽視了文化內核的傳承,商業開發過度;相關人才嚴重不足……

      展望未來,馮驥才深感重任在肩,但依然充滿自信。他清楚地記得,當年那個騎著自行車,后面綁著凳子、帶著破相機,在天津市四處轉悠拍攝記錄精美磚刻、拜訪磚刻藝人的年輕自己。陽光透過窗子,馮驥才青年時代那團明亮發光溫暖的夢,從未變過。

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