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  • 首頁>新聞發布>學術研究>詳情
    留住祠堂壁畫之美
    2017-08-18 11:30:17 來源:古建中國  作者:佚名  責任編輯:劉海旺

    留住祠堂壁畫之美

    祠堂古戲臺

      近日,在由湖南省政協文史委等單位組織的“尋找身邊的古建筑——青年學子歷史建筑保護公益行”專題調研活動中,中南大學中國村落文化研究中心課題組成員在湖南省桂陽縣發現了一處“家禮家訓”題材壁畫遺存,內容都是鮮明的“家禮家訓”題材。此次發現的壁畫具有怎樣的價值?如何保護好這些精美的壁畫?

      勸諭性壁畫的典型代表

      7月26日,中南大學中國村落文化研究中心課題組龍明盛、陽利新、李峰、繆文凱、陳勤學等5名成員深入湖南省桂陽縣蓮塘鎮錦湖村進行田野調查。在對錦湖村極具湘南特色的錦湖傅氏家祠古戲臺的考察中,調查組在錦湖家祠享堂左右壁、后壁、兩邊側廊墻壁發現有“家禮家訓”壁畫遺存。整個壁畫遺存圍繞儒家“孝、悌、忠、信、禮、義、廉、恥”的價值觀,以歷史典故來形象地闡釋儒家的人文精神。

      根據祠堂里碑刻可知,壁畫始繪制于乾隆九年(1743年),距今有274年的歷史。壁畫面積達230平方米,分別位于祠堂左右側廊、享堂的左右壁、寢堂左右壁與后壁。經初步清理,現保存完好、整體辨識度較高的壁畫有15鋪,面積為100余平方米。

      整個祠堂壁畫遺存,最能體現“家禮家訓”主題之處,位于享堂左右兩壁。左側墻壁,描繪的是“閔子騫單衣順母”“大保國”“岳飛大敗金兀術”“梁灝借書”四個故事;右側墻壁,描繪的是“程門立雪”“千里走單騎”“掩銀尋主”“不食周粟”四個故事。在壁畫之外,還有相應的文字,與圖畫互相呼應,相互補充。壁畫的主題圍繞儒家“孝、悌、忠、信、禮、義、廉、恥”的價值觀展開,整個壁畫線條緊勁連綿,堅韌有力,色彩以赭、綠為主,藝術水平頗高。享堂山墻還繪有青龍、白虎、鯉魚等祥瑞圖案。

      中南大學中國村落文化研究中心主任、教授胡彬彬認為,中國古代曾在很長一段時間內,將繪畫看作是道德教育的重要載體,特別強調它的社會文化功能。中國繪畫史上曾有過一個“禮教時期”,而且持續時間較長,這種繪畫功能主義的思想,雖說在宋以后不為文人士大夫所倡導,然而在清代發展相當繁盛,多分布于祠堂、私宅和寺廟等場所。清代“家禮家訓”壁畫貼近大眾,承擔著對基層民眾傳遞儒家“忠孝”觀念、倫理道德和宗教風尚的重任。

    留住祠堂壁畫之美

    閔子騫單衣順母

      藏在鄉野的文化瑰寶

      課題組認為,錦湖家祠的“家禮家訓”題材壁畫,不僅保存完好,而且面積之大、描繪之精在全國首屈一指,因而在建筑史、美術繪畫史和民俗文化史等多方面具有重要的研究參考價值。

      課題組組長龍明盛介紹,錦湖家祠壁畫無論是從構圖,還是線條勾勒的質量、色彩的對比與協調上,均達到了相當高的水準,具有較高的藝術價值。例如,在“閔子騫單衣順母”一畫中,其父的怒、子騫的孝、后母的愧,都表現得淋漓盡致。

      “享堂中的‘孝弟忠信、禮義廉恥’八字,取自朱熹法書,在‘禮義廉恥’一聯,還有仿造的朱熹款識。”龍明盛說,這充分說明,以朱熹為代表的宋明理學在當地的影響力。宋明理學提倡“修齊治平”,在學術道路上,重視“心性”甚于“事功”。在他們的眼中,“心者,人之神明,所以具眾理而應萬事者也”。這樣的生活理念也使得這些勸善修心的壁畫藝術成為一種必然的選擇,也說明了這些人雖然地處鄉野,但是其明心達理之心,追尋“正宗”之志,絲毫不亞于居于都市的士人。“從這樣一個大的文化背景下反觀昔日的桂陽鄉村,昆曲能夠在桂陽生根并廣為傳播,也就絲毫不覺得奇怪了。從這個角度說,作為物質遺存的家訓與圍繞家訓的壁畫同樣具有重大的文化價值。”龍盛明這樣評價家訓壁畫。

    留住祠堂壁畫之美

    祠堂壁畫

      讓文化遺跡成為一張新名片

      龍明盛介紹,錦湖家祠享堂左壁第一幅圖中,一絳衣老翁坐于畫面中心,老翁左邊立一藍衣老婦,老婦下首立一藍衣婦人與一紅衣孩童,老翁右邊是一對父子,父作大怒狀,子跪于父親下首。畫面生動表現了“閔子騫單衣順母”的故事:閔子騫性孝,年少時為后母所苦,冬月以蘆花代絮,子騫寒冷不堪。后為其父所知,欲休后母,閔子騫跪求父親時說:“母在一子寒,母去三子單,愿大人思之。”后母后悔,從此待三個兒子如同己出。

      而左壁第四幅圖中,左下角為一堆山石,一孤松立于畫面中部,向左傾斜,一紅衣老翁荷鋤立于左邊,回頭向右,右邊有一書生正向老人施禮問訊,后跟隨兩個書童。這是表現梁灝借書的故事。梁灝是北宋初年人,他幼時父母早逝,由叔父收養。他從小喜好讀書,但因家境貧寒買不起書,就跟別人借書來抄,然后再仔細閱讀。梁灝非常守信用,借來的書一定按時歸還,當為信義的楷模。

      “無論是‘閔子騫單衣順母’還是‘梁灝借書’,‘家禮家訓’題材壁畫都是當時普及傳統文化與施行道德教化的重要工具,在維系當時的主流價值觀方面起到了重要作用。”龍明盛說。

      湖南省桂陽縣至今還保留了大量的古街、古村、古祠堂、古戲臺等文化遺跡。2016年9月,桂陽還以古戲臺群名義申報“第八批全國重點文物保護單位”。桂陽縣第十二次黨代會議案增添了“堅持文化引領,著力提升文化軟實力”一章。受益于桂陽縣對古跡的保護與修繕,大量精美的祠堂壁畫也得以保存下來。文化遺跡,正成為桂陽的一張新名片。

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